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Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.
This article is a revision of the previous edition article by Kautsky, N., Folke, C., Rönnbäck, P., Troell, M., Beveridge, M., Primavera, J., Volume 1, pp. 185-198, © 2001, Elsevier Inc.
Troell, M., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M., Henriksson, P., Primavera, J., Rönnbäck, P., & Folke, C. (2013). Aquaculture. In S. A. Levin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 189-201). Waltham: Academic Press.