Now showing items 1-20 of 1439

    • Conference paper

      Abalone culture: an emerging aquaculture technology 

      AC Fermin - In Fishlink 2001, 29-31 May 2001, Sarabia Manor Hotel, Iloilo City, 2001 - University of the Philippines Aquaculture Society
    • Article

      Abdominal segment deformity syndrome (asds) and fused body segment deformity (fbsd) in cultured Penaeus indicus 

      The abdominal segment deformity disease (ASDD) is a new shrimp disease reported only in cultured Penaeus vannamei in Thailand. Shrimp with ASDD have deformed abdominal segment, jagged gut line and bumpy surfaces. Similar signs were observed in cultured P. indicus in the Philippines. However, aside from the signs described for ASDD, some P. indicus showing abdominal segment deformity syndrome (ASDS) had more severe deformities up to the extent that the number of body segments was reduced due to fusion. Shrimp with fused body segment deformity (FBSD) had four instead of five pairs of legs. To account the prevalence of the deformities in P. indicus, shrimp were classified into grossly normal shrimp (NS), shrimp with abdominal segment deformity syndrome (ASDS) and shrimp with fused segments (FBSD). Out of the shrimp sampled, 83.4 ± 5.4% was NS, 10.9 ± 6.2% was ASDS and 5.7 ± 3.0% was FBSD. Morphometric characteristics of the shrimp were measured. There was no significant difference in body weight (BW) among male and female NS, ASDS and FBSD. In both sexes, total length (TL) of FBSD was significantly shorter compared to NS and ASDS. Shrimp samples were also screened to be negative for known infectious viral diseases including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), P. vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Occurrence of ASDS and FBSD in post-larvae (PL) produced from captive and wild spawners were also determined. Based on a tank experiment, no significant difference was detected between the percentages of ASDS in PL produced from wild or captive spawners but FBSD was only noted in PL produced from the latter. Deformities generally did not affect the size of P. indicus except for the reduced length of shrimp with FBSD which when coupled with missing pleopods could lead to major economic loss for shrimp farmers if not addressed properly.
    • Conference paper

      Ability of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) to utilise organic matter in black tiger shrimp ponds 

      S Watanabe, M Kodama, JM Zarate, MJH Lebata-Ramos & MFJ Nievales - In CA Hair, TD Pickering & DJ Mills (Eds.), Asia-Pacific tropical sea cucumber aquaculture. Proceedings of an international symposium held in Noumea, New Caledonia, 15-17 February 2011, 2012 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Proceedings; No. 136
      Due to frequent viral disease outbreaks, a large proportion of shrimp aquaculture in South-East Asian countries has switched from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to P. vannamei, an exotic species originally imported from Latin America. One of the causes of disease outbreaks is thought to be poor water and sediment conditions in the shrimp ponds, which may aggravate disease symptoms. To obtain basic information for co-culture methods of black tiger shrimp and sandfish (Holothuria scabra) for possible mitigation of shrimp-pond eutrophication and prevention of disease outbreaks, basic laboratory experiments were conducted at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center—Aquaculture Department in Iloilo, the Philippines. A feeding trial of juvenile sandfish showed that they do not grow well with fresh shrimp feed on hard substrate. Another trial indicated that sand substrate enhances the growth of juvenile sandfish fed with shrimp feed. A feeding trial using shrimp tank detritus, shrimp faeces and Navicula ramosissima (a benthic diatom) as food sources showed that sandfish grew fastest with the faeces, followed by detritus and N. ramosissima. Dissolved oxygen consumption and acid-volatile sulfur levels in the shrimp tank detritus were reduced by sandfish feeding. This suggests that sandfish are capable of growing with organic matter in shrimp ponds, and can bioremediate shrimp-pond sediment.
    • Conference paper

      Acceptability of five species of freshwater algae to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry 

      JB Pantastico, JP Baldia & D Reyes Jr. - In CY Cho, CB Cowey & T Watanabe (Eds.), Finfish Nutrition in Asia : Methodological Approaches to Research and Development, 1985 - International Development Research Centre
      Unialgal cultures of Oscillatoria quadripunctulata, Chroococcus dispersus, Navicula notha, Euglena elongata, and Chlorella ellipsoidea were fed to tilapia fry for 30 days. Mean weights and survival rates of the fry were highest when given Navicula (105.6 mg, 86%) and Chroococcus (89.1 mg, 90%). Oscillatoria, a filamentous cyanophyte, showed limited acceptability to tilapia fry, possibly because of its larger size in comparison with Chroococcus. Fry fed Chlorella and Euglena did not survive at all.

      C14-labeled algae of the above species were fed to tilapia fry of varying ages. Assimilation rates per fry after 24 hours of feeding with a suitable algal species increased with the age of the fry. Moreover, the same trend as in the growth and survival experiments was observed, i.e., the highest assimilation rates were obtained in 40-day old tilapia fry given Navicula and Chroococcus as natural feeds. On the other hand, negligible amounts of the other three algal species tested were assimilated by tilapia fry.

      The above results were explained in terms of the enzyme secretion of tilapias. There seemed to be no transition stage in the feeding habit of both fry and adult tilapia. The acceptability of plant matter in the diet of even the early larval stages was demonstrated.
    • Conference paper

      Acceptability of selected zooplankton and phytoplankton for growing larvae/fry of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). 

      SF Baldia, JB Pantastico & JP Baldia - In The China Society of Fisheries, 1990 - Proceedings of the Asian Symposium on Freshwater Fish Culture, 11-15 October 1985, Beijing, China
    • Article

      Acceptability of territorial use rights in fisheries: towards community-based management of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines 

      SV Siar, RF Agbayani & JB Valera - Fisheries Research, 1992 - Elsevier
      The granting of territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs) to fisherfolk associations, similar to that practiced in Japan, is recommended as a management tool for small-scale fisheries in the Philippines. This study, carried out to determine the acceptability of the practice under Philippine conditions, was conducted among 211 coastal dwellers of five municipalities in Panay Island, Central Philippines. Respondents of the survey generally perceived the practice of TURFs as acceptable as it would lead to an improvement of their catch. Results suggest that the respondents' present predicament of inadequacy of catch to support their livelihood is the starting point for introduction of the rationale for community-based management of coastal marine resources.
    • Article

      Acclimation of Penaeus monodon postlarvae to fresh water 

      JB Pantastico & EN Oliveros - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1980 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Gradual acclimation of Penaeus monodon Fabricius to fresh water was conducted in glass aquaria and marine plywood tanks over a one-day, two-day, and three-day acclimation periods. Different stages of postlarvae were tested for their hardiness to acclimation. P35 postlarvae had a high percent survival of 98-99% while lower values were obtained for P20 and P90. A three-day acclimation period was favorable for all ages of postlarvae. Shorter durations of acclimation produced survival values as low as 20% This stress effect was apparent with P20 and P90 but not with P35 which showed high survival regardless of the length of acclimation.
    • Article

      Accumulation and excretion of metal granules in the prawn, Penaeus monodon, exposed to water-borne copper, lead, iron and calcium 

      G Vogt & ET Quinitio - Aquatic Toxicology, 1994 - Elsevier
      Juveniles of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, were exposed for 10 days to 1 mg/l copper, lead, iron or calcium in order to investigate the formation and accumulation of metal granules in major soft tissues as well as their excretion from the body. Metal deposition was investigated by histochemistry and electron microscopy in the hepatopancreas and surrounding organs and tissues like the stomach, midgut, anterior midgut caecum, thoracal antennal gland extensions, haematopoietic tissue, and interspersed musculature, connective tissue and pigment tissue. The abundance of metal granules varied greatly between the metals and the tissues. Iron and calcium deposits were found in none of the tissues investigated. Copper granules were accumulated in high quantity in the hepatopancreas tubules, were scarce in the antechamber of the hepatopancreas, the anterior midgut and the anterior midgut caecum, and were lacking in the other tissues. The amount and size of copper granules increased along the hepatopancreas tubules in accordance with the cells' age. The granules were released by discharge of senescent hepatopancreas cells in the antechamber region and were added to the faeces. Lead granules were primarily found in the thoracal extensions of the antennal gland. In the hepatopancreas they occurred only in very small quantities, and in the other organs and tissues they were absent. In the antennal gland, the lead granules were individually discharged into the gland lumen by apocrine secretion and excreted with the urine. The observed ability of Penaeus monodon to detoxify and remove metals like copper and lead by granule formation and excretion and to prevent other metals like iron from entrance into major soft tissues corroborate that decapods are no suitable organisms for a long-term biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution.
    • Article

      Accumulation and tissue distribution of radioiodine (131I) from algal phytoplankton by the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis 

      MLA Cuvin-Aralar & RC Umaly - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1991 - Springer Verlag
      Radioactive wastes discharged from establishments involved in the use of radioisotopes such as nuclear powered industries, tracer research and nuclear medicine are a potential public health hazard. Such wastes contain radionuclides, particularly Iodine-131 (131I), produced in fission with a yield of about 3%. It is a beta emitter (Bmax = 0.61MeV); it also emits gamma photons. It has a short half-life (8.04 d) (Dutton 1975), hence it is difficult to detect unless accumulated by indicator organisms.

      Radionuclides in waste waters are known to be taken up by molluscs such as mussels (Van der Borght and Van Puymbroeck 1970; Fowler et al. 1975; Hetherington et al. 1976; Helt et al. 1980; and Sombrito et al. 1982), oyster (Romeril 1971; Cranmore and Harrison 1975) and clams (Cuvin and Umaly 1988).

      This study aims to determine the uptake of 131I from algal phytoplankton (Choroococcus dispersus) fed to the freshwater clam Corbicula manillensis as well as the organ/tissue distribution. The results will be compared with our previous study on 131I uptake from water by the same clams (Cuvin and Umaly 1988).
    • Conference paper

      Acetes as prime food for Penaeus monodon larvae 

      P Kungvankij, AG Tacon, K Corre, BP Pudadera, G Taleon, E Borlongan & IO Potestas - 1986 - Asian Fisheries Society
      This paper presents research attempts to develop a suitable artificial diet for shrimp larvae with locally-available materials. Larval rearing experiments using finely ground Acetes tissues conducted under various climatic conditions and hatchery systems were completed. In the dry season, larvae in outdoor tanks fed dry Acetes had the highest survival rate (68%) compared to larvae fed Chaetoceros (48%) or fresh Acetes (39%). In contrast, larvae from an indoor hatchery reared with Chaetoceros had higher survival rate (52%) than those fed with Acetes (35%) and fresh Acetes (24%).

      During rainy months, the survival of larvae reared with Skeletonema , dry and fresh Acetes in outdoor tanks was 72%, 52% and 38% and in indoor tanks 62%, 40% and 23%, respectively.
    • Article

      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines 

      LD de la Peña, NAR Cabillon, DD Catedral, EC Amar, RC Usero, WD Monotilla, AT Calpe, DD Fernandez & CP Saloma - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2015 - Inter Research
      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.
    • Article

      Acute nitrite toxicity and methemoglobinemia in juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) 

      JME Almendras - Aquaculture, 1987 - Elsevier
      Nitrite was about 55 times more toxic to milkfish juveniles in fresh water than in 16% brackish water: the 48-h median lethal concentrations were 12 mg NO2-N/l (95% confidence limit=7.4–19.6) and 675 mg NO2-N/l (95% confidence limit = 435.8–1,045.4) respectively. Methemoglobin levels were higher for a given concentration of nitrite in milkfish kept in fresh water than in the brackish water. Methemoglobin decreased to a normal level within 24–26 hours of the removal of nitrite.
    • Conference paper

      Acute toxicity of formalin to sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fry. 

      FC Pascual, GT Tayo & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In LM Chou, AD Munro, TJ Lam, TW Chen, LKK Cheong, JK Ding, KK Hooi, HW Khoo, VPE Phang, KF Shim & CH Tan (Eds.), The Third Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-30 October 1992, Singapore, 1994 - Asian Fisheries Society
    • Conference paper

      Acute toxicity of mercury to Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings 

      MLA Cuvin-Aralar - BIOTROP Special Publication, 1991 - SEAMEO BIOTROP
      Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to the following mercury (as HgCl2) concentrations: 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 mg l-1 Hg of water. Hyperactivity and erratic swimming were the first indications of mercury intoxication. Scoliosis, a curvature in the mid-trunk region, was observed in some fish in the 0.03 - 0.06 mg l-1 Hg tanks. The occurrence of scoliosis is significantly correlated with mercury concentration. The 24 hour LC50 (0.0375 mg l-1 Hg) did not differ significantly with the 96 hour LC50 (0.0350 mg l-1 Hg).
    • Article

      Acute toxicity of nifurpirinol, a fish chemotherapeutant, to milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerlings 

      CT Tamse & RQ Gacutan - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994 - Springer Verlag
      Nifurpirinol (trade name Furanace and originally known as P-7138), is a nitrofuran derivative synthesized by the Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Japan, and was developed exclusively as a broad-spectrum antibiotic for fish and other aquatic organisms (Shimizu and Takase 1967). It has been shown to have bactericidal and fungicidal action in vitro and in vivo (Shimizu and Takase 1967; Amend and Ross 1970; Pearse et al. 1974; Mitchell and Plumb 1980), and was used because of its excellent potential in controlling prawn diseases (Delves-Broughton 1974; Gacutan and Llobrera 1977).

      Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) is a widely-reared species and a very important aquaculture food crop in most parts of Southeast Asia. Thus, it was the logical choice as test animal for investigating the LC50 toxicity levels of nifurpirinol (6-hydroxymethyl-2-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl) vinyl] pyridine) after 96 hr exposure. Changes in the normal gill architecture of milkfish after exposure to the drug were also studied (Tamse et al., in preparation).
    • Article

      Acute toxicity of nitrite to mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) larvae 

      ML Seneriches-Abiera, F Parado-Estepa & GA Gonzales - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Early larval stages of mud crab Scylla serrata were exposed to different concentrations of nitrite (40, 80 and 160 mg L−1 and a control, without added nitrite) and three salinity levels (25, 30 and 35 g L−1) using a static renewal method. No interactive effect of nitrite and salinity was detected. Estimated LT50 in 96-h toxicity tests decreased in all stages with increasing nitrite concentrations in all salinity levels. The 96-h LC50 values of nitrite-N were 41.58, 63.04, 25.54, 29.98 and 69.93 mg L−1 for zoea 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. As the larvae grew, they showed a progressive increase in tolerance to nitrite. The toxicity of nitrite to larvae increased with exposure time. The median lethal concentration was not affected by salinity. The chloride component of salinity within 25–35 g L−1 did not seem to be as effective in alleviating toxicity as has been reported in other crustacean species. Based on 96-h LC50 and an application factor of 0.1, the ‘safe level’ of rearing mud crab larvae was calculated to be 4.16, 6.30, 2.55, 2.99 and 6.99 mg L−1 nitrite-N for zoea 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively.
    • Article

      Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to milkfish fingerlings, Chanos chanos 

      ER Cruz & CT Tamse - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1989 - Springer Verlag
      Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a strong oxidizing agent and is commonly used in aquatic systems to improve available oxygen, treat infectious diseases and parasites, detoxify fish poisons, and control algae. The following study was undertaken to determine the 24- and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of milk fish (Chanos chanos)) fingerlings to KMnO4. The study was also designed to evaluate the histopathological response of fish tissues to KMnO4 but was reported in another paper (Cruz and Tamse 1986).
    • Article

      Acute toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerlings 

      ER Cruz - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1981 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      The acute toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerlings was determined using a static bioassay system. The 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hr LC50 values were calculated at 25.74 ppm NH3-N (1.89 ppm NH3), 23.06 ppm NH3-N (1.46 ppm NH3), 21.62 ppm NH3-N (1.25 ppm NH3) and 20.65 ppm NH3-N (1.12 ppm NH3), respectively.
    • Article

      Acute toxicity of water-accommodated fraction and chemically enhanced WAF of bunker C oil and dispersant to a microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele 

      SS Santander-Avanceña, RB Sadaba, HS Taberna Jr., GT Tayo & J Koyama - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2016 - Springer Verlag
      This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30 % and 2.40 %, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0 % and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0 % while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0 % and 2.0 %, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant.
    • Article

      Adsorption and biomass concentration of thraustochytrid Schizochytrium aggregatum (Goldstein and Belsky) in Bunker C Oil 

      BGS Sarinas, LD Gellada, MLT Torrigue, DN Sibonga, ES Torrato, JG Malagad, JG Feril, LAJ Bondoc, JCA Roncal & JA Tornalejo - Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 2014 - School of Environmental Science and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      Diverse array of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protists are involved during oil spill. Each microorganism has its own specific function whether it has to degrade or adsorb hydrocarbons. One important microorganism is the Thraustochytrid that is a fungoid protist and are common in marine and estuarine habitats. Numerous studies existed on the biodegradation and adsorption of Thraustochytrids on various substances but not on Bunker C oil. Thus, this study aimed to determine the adsorption capacity and mean biomass of Thraustochytrids in Bunker C oil using different cell densities measured in grams. All of the three treatments or cell densities (1 x 105 cells ml-1, 1 x 106 cells ml-1 and 1 x 107 cells ml-1) were triplicated and average values were recorded. Oil dispersant was used as a control. It showed that Thraustochytrid with 1 x 107 cells ml-1 showed the highest adsorbed oil (.057 ḡ) among the three cell densities and showed significant difference at p = .01 but comparable to the control (.066 ḡ). In terms of biomass concentration, all cell densities showed no significant difference at p = .01. Thraustochytrid is a promising tool during oil spill because it has the capacity to adsorb oil.