Now showing items 1-20 of 51

    • Meeting report

      Integrated physical and biological technologies for water recycling in shrimp farms. 

      P Songsangjinda - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Environment-friendly shrimp culture system has been an issue for improving shrimp farming and making it sustainable. In the past decade, Thailand adopted the open shrimp culture system, which consumed a lot of coastal and estuarine waters. The huge amount of nutrients and organic matter are dumped into the water receiving areas, resulting in eutrophication of the natural resource. A strategy developed to solve the problem was to reduce the water consumption in shrimp farms by recycling the water and re-using it for succeeding culture operations. The technologies that have been adopted for water treatment in recycling included physical, biological and chemical treatments. Since the effluent from shrimp farms is turbid, in high volume, and enriched with organic nutrients, the integration of physical and biological treatment was considered a potential treatment system that can be used extensively in recycling the effluents from shrimp farms.
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      Research project proposals 

      Anon. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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      Promotion of mangrove-friendly shrimp aquaculture in Southeast Asia. 

      Sulit, Virgilia T. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This publication comprises two major parts : Report on the Regional Seminar-Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand, 24-27 June 2003 ; Report on the Mangrove Friendly Shrimp Culture Project: Phase I (2000-2003).
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      Use of mangroves for aquaculture: Myanmar. 

      UT Win - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture has only started to develop rapidly in the past few decades, due to better knowledge of culture species, improved methodologies and techniques in breeding, nutrition and increasing demand for food fish of high-value species such as shrimps, sea bass and groupers.

      Mangrove deforestation has an impact on shrimp culture itself, the success of the latter (when traditional culture method is used) depends on stocking of wild fry. For semi-intensive and intensive shrimp culture, the number of wild caught spawners may decrease because wild shrimp populations also use mangrove swamps as its feeding ground.

      Other negative effects of mangrove destruction to make way to shrimp ponds, include water pollution from pond effluents, sedimentation from the release of solid materials from pond, interruption of the tidal water flow, dwindling natural shrimp and fish stock due to increased pollution or product contamination due to indiscriminate use of chemicals.

      Chemicals and drugs (antibiotic) should not be used in fish and shrimp culture for prevention and control of bacteria and viral diseases. In order to ensure the sustainable development of aquaculture, it is important to bear in mind the interdependence of technology and natural resource under various socioeconomic setting.
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      Capacity of mangroves to process shrimp pond effluents. 

      JH Primavera - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Shrimp culture has been criticized for causing mangrove loss and discharging effluents laden with chemicals, organic matter and nutrients into waterways. Hence the SEAFDEC Council mandated SEAFDEC/AQD to undertake studies that integrate aquaculture with mangroves. Thus, the Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Culture Project follows two models: (a) the use of mangrove forests as filters to process effluents from intensive culture ponds, and (b) aquasilviculture which integrates low-density culture of crabs, etc. with mangroves. Worldwide only a few projects to date have tested mangroves as nutrient filters, hence the need to focus on this property of mangroves.
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      Report of the round table discussion 

      Anon. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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      Participants in the Round Table Discussion 

      Anon. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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      Preliminary pages 

      Anon. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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      Shrimp culture and mangroves: Brunei Darussalam. 

      SHAIbSH Nekman - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Brunei Darussalam is a coastal state located in the north-western portion of Borneo island within latitudes 5o 05’ N and 4o 00’ N and longitudes 114o 04’ E and 115o 22’ E. The country has a land area of 5765 km2 (576,400 ha.) divided administratively into four districts, i.e. Brunei-Muara, Tutong, Belait and Temburong. The coastline of the country is roughly 130 km long, fronting the South China Sea and shares a common border with the east Malaysian State of Sarawak. The main population centers are in the coastal zone, accounting for over 85% of the population (305,100 in 1996). It is a Malay Islamic Monarchy and has a stable economy largely dependent on the exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons.
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      The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Cambodia. 

      SL Song - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Natural conditions of the coastal and ecosystems of Cambodia have made this country rich of biodiversity resources. Cambodia’s 435 km coastline is covered with large estuaries with about 85,100 ha of mangrove forests (Nelson 1999). Even the coastline disadvantageously compares to that of other countries of the Southeast China Sea region, but its natural creations such as large and small bays, number of big and small inshore and off-shore islands, sea floor, oceanic current, freshwater rivers and streams, weather etc., support the diversification of all bio-resources. Fortunately, due to the fact that most Cambodians are interested in inland rather than coastal aquaculture, as well as suitable development management and conservation policies of the Government in the past, these natural habitats remained pristine until 1970. However, the habitats have been disturbed because of the various exploitation and development works for several decades during the wartime and even after, due to lack of managerial strategy.

      Cambodia had joined the Biodiversity Convention since February 1994, but until now, due to economic depression and poverty, the national awareness on the importance of biodiversity conservation is very limited. The crowded competition on exploitation of nature including coastal and marine resources, have been very aggressive in recent years that degraded the natural environment faster. Currently, many efforts and attempts by NGOs and international organizations have been made in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, to alleviate the marine and coastal resources pressures.
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      Verification of semi-intensive shrimp culture techniques: Myanmar. 

      M Thame - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In the year 2000, the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries reinforced and encouraged many potential investors to be involved in the shrimp aquaculture development in the country. At the same time, the Union of Myanmar formed a State Level Committee to promote a drastic development of the shrimp aquaculture industry by formulating a three-year concept plan from May 2000 to May 2003 with a target to develop 120,000 acres (48,000 hectares) of shrimp pond areas at the end of the target period. Since then a lot of potential investors were involved in shrimp aquaculture practicing semi-intensive and intensive type of shrimp farming.

      In 2002, some shrimp farms practicing semi-intensive/intensive system had successes but some encountered white spot disease occurrence resulting in great losses. The disease had devastated many farms in Yangon Division, paralyzing the shrimp industry development. In Yangon, the water is very turbid and the farms are near the urban waste dumping area.

      Through the Project, three areas were surveyed in February 2001 to determine the level of shrimp technology that Myanmar has developed for shrimp farming. The three areas were: (1) Thi La Wa Shrimp Culture Zone (Kyauktan Township); (2) Chaungta (Kyauktan Township); and (3) Ngwe Saung area. Results of the survey were used to identify the areas that could be used for the Project.
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      Mangrove plantation for enhancing food web in water recycling shrimp farms. 

      W Chutchawanchaipan - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Environmental deterioration in ponds and costal waters has been a common evidence after each intensive shrimp culture due to the accumulation of organic wastes and occurrence of eutrophication processes. Mangrove is a wetland that potentially supports the natural food web in the estuary and coastal areas. The planting of mangroves in recycling shrimp farms would serve the purpose of developing sustainable shrimp farms by utilizing the enriched organic matters and nutrients thus enhancing the natural food web in the shrimp farms. However, mangrove trees in pond dikes tend to grow small and the roots may not be able to support the tree during pond erosion resulting in the mortality of the mangrove trees. Brackishwater weeds, which cover the soil in the pond dikes, could serve the function of the young mangrove trees.
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      Giant freshwater prawn culture in Indonesia. 

      E Nugroho & L Emmawati - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Indonesia is one of the countries that have high levels of biological diversity in terms of freshwater fishes, the country’s rich biological resources, characterized by a high level of endemism. About 30 endemic species of freshwater fishes are found in Sumatera, 149 species in Kalimantan, 12 species in Java, and 52 species in Sulawesi (Anonym, 1994; Kottelat et al.,1993). The country’s total freshwater area is 55 million ha consisting of lakes, dams, swamps and other water bodies. The potential area for freshwater pond fish culture is estimated at 233,124 ha with a production of 334,085 mt/year (DGF, Indonesia. 2001), of which about 5140 mt comprises the giant freshwater prawn.
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      Verification of semi-intensive shrimp culture techniques: Vietnam. 

      L Xan - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Vietnam has about 260,000 ha devoted for shrimp culture in early 1999. The total production was estimated at about 80,000 tons in 2000, so that productivity was about 300 kg/ha only. In 1990–1997, vast areas of mangroves were destroyed by many fish farmers for conversion into shrimp culture ponds. The Vietnam Government and local authorities have been trying to mobilize and educate farmers for them to refrain from destroying mangroves for shrimp culture; and at the same time promote increased shrimp productivity/ha in order to increase profit; and generate employment without necessarily destroying the mangroves.

      Cathai is an island district in north Vietnam with 12 communes in two islands, Catba and Cathai. Phulong Island in Catba Island, has the largest mangrove area. Before 1990, the total mangrove area of Phulong was about 2000 ha but in 1998 only about 1200 ha remained, because about 800 ha had been converted into shrimp ponds.

      However, due to lack of technology in shrimp culture especially the semi–intensive pond culture, production ranged from 200 to 300 kg/ha/crop, while in extensive ponds, production was only 50–70 kg/ha/year. Local authorities and the people of Phulong have been expecting to increase productivity from shrimp culture. Using the mangrove-friendly shrimp technology modeled by the Philippines and Thailand, the objective of the semi–intensive shrimp pond culture activity in Vietnam is to obtain 1000–1500kg/ha and to develop a model for an improved shrimp culture system.

      In the Memorandum of Agreement signed between the Ministry of Fisheries and the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center for the implementation of the Project in Vietnam, the Research Institute for Marine Products (RIMP) in Haiphong was chosen to carry out the demonstration activity focusing on the semi–intensive mangrove-friendly shrimp culture in Phulong, Cathai District, Haiphong, Vietnam. The ponds used for the Project had a total area of about 6.0 ha. Construction of the pond facilities following the Project’s scheme was completed in December 1999.
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      The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Indonesia. 

      A Sunaryanto - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Indonesia has more than 17,500 islands and 81,000 km of coastline which bears the biggest mangrove area in the world, based on the data given by a source in 1982, which stated that mangrove areas was 4.25 million ha or 27 % of the mangrove areas in the world.

      Later data in 1987 and 1993 the total mangrove areas were only 3.23 and 2.49 million ha, respectively, and theses have been reportedly reduced by about 1.0 and 0.8 million ha, respectively, allegedly due to aquaculture. Various sources also supply different data, but generally, the tendency of deforestation in mangrove areas is also shown.

      Brackishwater pond culture was always suspected to be the main cause of the deforestation. Nevertheless, the development of brackishwater pond area does not support the allegations. From the data given by the Directorate General of Fisheries, brackishwater pond area in 1982, 1987 and 1993 are 220,400 ha, 263,200 and 331,800 ha, respectively, which means only about 22% ha (of the 1.0 million ha reduction) and 41% ha (of the 0.8 million ha reduction) may have caused the mangrove area reduction. In reality, not all of the brackishwater ponds are developed in mangrove areas as some of them are in coastal sand areas.
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      The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Philippines 

      RE Dieta & FC Arboleda - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      According to the National Forest Resource Inventory (NFRI), the estimated remaining area of mangrove forests in the Philippines in 1988 is 139,100 ha (DENR 1994). Of the total 139,100 ha mangrove forests, 78,593 ha are found within the mangrove forest reservations. Presidential Proclamation (PP) 2151 declares approximately 4326 ha as mangrove wilderness areas, while PP 2152 declares an aggregate 74,268 ha as mangrove swamp forest reserves.

      Approximately 95% of these mangroves are secondary growth and only 5% are old growth mangroves. These old growth mangrove forests are mostly located in Palawan Island. Results of a survey revealed that Palawan covers 35% of the conservation area followed by Surigao del Norte, which covers 22% of the total mangrove forest reserve. Surigao del Norte covers more than 50% of mangrove wilderness areas followed by Bohol with 29%. However, recent survey showed that there are mangrove reservation areas converted and developed for aquaculture purposes. Portions of the mangrove swamp forest reserves are found in Palawan, Quezon, Camarines Norte, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental, Davao, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur and Zamboanga del Sur.
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      Mitigation plan on the use of mangroves for aquaculture: Thailand. 

      S Tookwinas - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Mangrove forest is one of the important coastal natural resources of Thailand, however, mangrove forests have deteriorated very rapidly at a rate of more than 50% of the mangrove loss during 1961–1996. The utilization and destruction of mangrove forest has been seriously discussed in many fora. Shrimp farming is one activity, which has disturbed the mangrove forests. According to the inventory and analysis of LANDSAT5 TM satellite imagery data of 1993, only 17.49% of shrimp farms are located in mangrove forests and only 7.36% in the productive area. In addition 10.10% of shrimp farms are in unproductive or upland area, which have been leased legally by the farmers. Therefore, the Royal Thai Government has been working closely with the local communities and NGOs to implement a mangrove reforestation program targeting a replanting of 24,394.64 ha. As a result, the mangrove area has increased to 252,750.88 ha in 2001.
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      The use of mangroves in Malaysia 

      AHb Abdul Shukor - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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      The macrobrachium culture industry in Thailand. 

      S Uraiwa & P Sodsuk - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachum rosenbergii) is one of the most important economic species in Thailand as well as in many Southeast Asian countries. It is highly demanded as food for the Thais that lead to its gradual over-catching from the natural waters every year. Thus, domestication experiments on the Macrobrachium have been conducted by the Department of Fisheries since 1956 to increase prawn production (Sidthimunka and Bhukaswan, 1982). This resulted in the nationwide extension of its culture technology to a number of commercial giant freshwater prawn culture companies. Now this species has become one of the economic commodities in the country’s aquaculture industry. Recently, statistics report showed that the total prawn culture in 2002 increased by 38% from the year 1996, while the total value in the same year increased by 89% from the year 1996. The statistics also showed that in 1996 and 2002, the total production were 7200 and 10,000 mt, respectively, valued at 596.3 and 1,117.6 million Thai Baht, respectively (Department of Fisheries and Suwannatos, 2003). The market price per kg of freshwater prawn, which varies according to the prawn sizes, has been increasing since 1989. In 1997, the large, medium and small sizes increased by 76%, 123% and 81% from those in year 1989, respectively.
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      Development of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) seed production and culture technology in the Mekong Delta Region of Vietnam: A review of the JIRCAS Project at Cantho University. 

      MN Wilder, HY Ogata, NT Phuong, NA Tuan, TTT Hien & TN Hai - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is a region rich in aquatic resources having high potential for aquaculture development. Inland aquaculture in the Mekong Delta has greatly increased since the last decade. Fish culture carried out in combination with other agricultural activities such as animal husbandry and rice cultivation, and intensive aquaculture in ponds and cages have been the dominant forms of fish production. However, the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, has recently become a species of economic significance and the target of aquaculture activity in the Mekong Delta. M. rosenbergii is cultured throughout the region in the rice fields, ponds, orchard gardens and in pens along river banks. The major constraints in this industry are seed supply and culture techniques, becoming the major obstacles for the further development of the culture of this species.

      In a collaborative research project implemented between the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) and Cantho University (CTU) since 1994, studies have been carried out on various aspects relating to the establishment of M. rosenbergii seed production and culture technology. The project is now in the middle of its second phase and has generated a great deal of scientific and practical information. This paper presents an overview of the achievements of this project.