Now showing items 1-20 of 51

    • Meeting report

      Capacity of mangroves to process shrimp pond effluents. 

      JH Primavera - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Shrimp culture has been criticized for causing mangrove loss and discharging effluents laden with chemicals, organic matter and nutrients into waterways. Hence the SEAFDEC Council mandated SEAFDEC/AQD to undertake studies that integrate aquaculture with mangroves. Thus, the Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Culture Project follows two models: (a) the use of mangrove forests as filters to process effluents from intensive culture ponds, and (b) aquasilviculture which integrates low-density culture of crabs, etc. with mangroves. Worldwide only a few projects to date have tested mangroves as nutrient filters, hence the need to focus on this property of mangroves.
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      Collection of wild stocks, domestication and propagation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

      WR Rosario & EC Roxas - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      There is an expanding interest in the culture of freshwater prawn in the Philippines. This is attributed to the extensive campaign of the government, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and some private entrepreneurs to disseminate information and seeds of the prawn nationwide.

      Although freshwater aquaculture in the Philippines is still dominated by tilapia, which is an exotic fish, the profit from tilapia culture is not well appreciated except for family consumption or nutrition purposes. The freshwater prawn, an indigenous species, remains to be an important species. With freshwater prawn as an alternative species, farmers can diversify and derive higher profit from their ponds. In the Philippines, Macrobrachium rosenbergii stocked in 2,000 m2 ponds may grow to about 45 g after four months and 90 to 100 g in seven months of culture (Rosario, 2002). The price of the species is five times higher than tilapia.

      During the first Round Table Discussion on the Development of Genetically Improved Strain of Macrobrachium held at the Freshwater Aquaculture Development Center, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia in November 2003, the delegates from Thailand reported that the Philippine wild stocks of Macrobrachium, M. rosenbergii rosenbergii Philippine strain could be a better variety and therefore must be protected from contamination by non-indigenous strains. The report supports and confirms the importance of the activity of the National Integrated Fisheries and Development Center (NIFTDC) to collect live specimens of various strains of Macrobrachium in the country and review their performance in terms of growth and fecundity.
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      Culture of giant freshwater prawn: Philippines. 

      WR Rosario & MM Tayamen - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Freshwater prawn thrives in inland bodies of water like rivers, lakes, swamps, irrigation canals, estuaries and even in rivers upstream. More than 100 species were reported to exist worldwide. A recent survey in Luzon Island, Philippines identified 12 species of freshwater prawn found in the island.

      The country’s interest on freshwater prawn fishery started in 1914 as explained by Cowles (1914), when he identified that freshwater prawn was one of the important fisheries during that time. Likewise, he discussed the geographical distribution of the species, the value of fishery and biology.

      In late 1976, trials were conducted to culture the freshwater prawn, however, the studies were never sustained. For these trials, the collection of wild spawners and larval rearing of M. rosenbergii was conducted in Misamis Oriental, Mindanao between 1976-1979 by Dejarme et al. Post larval stage was attained but larval rearing lasted only for 39 days. There were more attempts in the past to adopt the technology for the propagation of the species but the efforts never progressed beyond research at institution level.

      In 1981, a local banker-industrialist established a 100-hectare commercial Macrobrachium farm in Sta. Rosa, Nueva Ecija and a hatchery in Bulacan. Services of experts from Israel were utilized for the project. Marketable prawns were sold live in Metro Manila utilizing in-house retail outlets. After a few years, the company diversified their operations to include tilapia culture. However, even the diversification failed to save the first commercial production venture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the Philippines.
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      Development of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) seed production and culture technology in the Mekong Delta Region of Vietnam: A review of the JIRCAS Project at Cantho University. 

      MN Wilder, HY Ogata, NT Phuong, NA Tuan, TTT Hien & TN Hai - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is a region rich in aquatic resources having high potential for aquaculture development. Inland aquaculture in the Mekong Delta has greatly increased since the last decade. Fish culture carried out in combination with other agricultural activities such as animal husbandry and rice cultivation, and intensive aquaculture in ponds and cages have been the dominant forms of fish production. However, the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, has recently become a species of economic significance and the target of aquaculture activity in the Mekong Delta. M. rosenbergii is cultured throughout the region in the rice fields, ponds, orchard gardens and in pens along river banks. The major constraints in this industry are seed supply and culture techniques, becoming the major obstacles for the further development of the culture of this species.

      In a collaborative research project implemented between the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) and Cantho University (CTU) since 1994, studies have been carried out on various aspects relating to the establishment of M. rosenbergii seed production and culture technology. The project is now in the middle of its second phase and has generated a great deal of scientific and practical information. This paper presents an overview of the achievements of this project.
    • Meeting report

      Discussion and field trip 

      Anon. - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Meeting report

      Environment-friendly schemes in intensive shrimp farming. 

      DD Baliao - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      International environmental pressure groups call for shrimp importing countries to impose a trade embargo against farmed shrimps produced in a manner considered deleterious to the environment. In fact, Europe had banned in 2000 the importation of shrimps from some Asian countries. The subject of such protest actions included: (1) discharge of substances potentially harmful to marine organisms (chemicals used during pond preparation and therapeutants used during culture period); (2) discharge of excessive organic load during regular water change and harvests; and (3) chemical residues in shrimps harvested and marketed.

      In the Philippines, a mandate from the national government was given to SEAFDEC in 1996 to rehabilitate the shrimp industry, which almost reached the brink of virtual collapse due to diseases brought about by some environmentally destructive practices. Mangrove-friendly aquaculture or what is sometimes referred to as the environment-friendly aquaculture was launched by AQD as a five-year program starting in 1998. The focus was later changed to shrimp culture and made part of the ASEAN-SEAFDEC Fisheries Consultative Group (FCG) collaborative project with AQD as Lead Department for technology development and verification, and Thailand as Lead Country for promoting the technology within the Southeast Asian region.
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      Evaluation of growth rate of GI Macro II strain in different locations. 

      E Nugroho, I Khasani & Mr. Maskur - 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Meeting report

      Evaluation of seawater irrigation for intensive marine shrimp farming. 

      C Sangrungruang - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The seawater irrigation system has benefited the intensive marine shrimp culture making shrimp culture sustainable and increasing shrimp production. The results obtained from this research study indicated that the adverse effects of shrimp farms on mangrove and costal environments around the irrigation system could be controlled and minimized. There are three main critical control points identified in this study that need to be considered: 1) Supply canals in the system should be cleaned and renovated every 2-3 years. 2) Wastewater treatment system should be monitored to avoid the accumulation of solid wastes while the solid wastes should be properly managed. 3) The seawater irrigation system can minimize shrimp pathogens from entering the culture ponds, however for disease prevention, farmers should adopt good aquaculture practices including pond preparation, seed quality, and prevention of disease carriers.

      Managing the seawater irrigation system needs a systematic teamwork. The above critical control points of the system should be monitored regularly and managed properly. The pond manager should assess the system regularly to prevent the adverse effects to the shrimp farms and to the environment.
    • Meeting report

      Freshwater prawn program of BFAR 

      MM Tayamen - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbengii) is one of the indigenous prawns found in many parts of the country. Locally known as ulang, it is a hardy species that is easily farmed. On the average, farmed ulang weighs from 30 to 100 grams, which translates to 10 to 25 pieces per kilo. This is very much comparable to the medium to large or jumbo sizes of brackishwater tiger shrimps or sugpo. In the wild, ulang grow as much as 500 g and sells at 300 to 350 pesos/kg ($1=P55.50), however, the quantity harvested is limited and is dependent on its seasonality.

      Despite the development of both hatchery and grow-out technologies for ulang, there is really no significant commercial production in the country yet, except in BFAR-operated hatcheries in Muñoz and in Dagupan. To date, the only private ulang hatchery is MBL Farms producing up to 150,000 PL or post-larvae per run (45 days), although there are entrepreneurs trained in Muñoz who are also operating small backyard hatcheries for prawns.

      With the emerging global market on this giant freshwater prawn coupled with improved technologies, it is but imperative to speed up the development of the industry in the country. However, the industry is faced with problems and constraints that include:

      • insufficient breeders

      • insufficient supply of post-larvae or PL for stocking

      • limited market supply

      • limited funds for interested stakeholders

      • insufficient information

      • inadequate promotion of technology transfer

      • very few skilled and/or trained technicians

      • research and development of ulang hatchery and grow-out are still wanting new technologies
    • Meeting report

      The freshwater prawn research at SEAFDEC/AQD. 

      MR Eguia - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Research and commercial production of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium sp., in the Philippines are yet not well-developed. Although studies on Macrobrachium sp. (or ulang as it is locally known), started at the Binangonan Freshwater Station (BFS) of SEAFDEC/AQD in the mid-1980s, research efforts were discontinued soon thereafter because of: (a) inadequate technical skills; (b) problems with larval rearing and the domestication of wild stocks; and (c) the Macrobrachium sp. is being considered in the Philippines as a low priority species in contrast to commercially important freshwater commodities like tilapia and milkfish.

      That was two decades ago and in retrospect, researches continued and the freshwater prawn in the Philippines could have been successfully domesticated and current problems concerning the limited aquaculture production of genetically depauperate non-indigenous stocks could have been resolved. With the renewed interest in the culture of alternative species like the freshwater prawn, researchers at the Binangonan Freshwater Station (BFS) started to conduct some studies on the refinement of breeding, larval rearing and culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii since 2003.
    • Meeting report

      Future plan of action and recommendations 

      Anon. - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Meeting report

      Genetic improvement of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Indonesia. 

      E Nugroho, K Sugana & Mr. Maskur - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      One way of increasing the production of freshwater prawn is through a genetic improvement program. The GI Macro seeds (Genetically Improved Macrobrachium rosenbergii) that Indonesia developed have been released to farmers since 2001. However, producing 50 g prawns have become difficult with survival rate of as low as 40% after 9-11 months of culture. Thus, the program to improve growth rate and increase the edible portion of the prawn was conducted.

      Giant freshwater prawn is an important commodity that is successfully cultured in Indonesia. Its culture has been developed in several areas of West Java, i.e., Ciamis (Tambaksari, Pamarican and Kalipucang) and Tasikmalaya. The Indonesian Government has developed a hatchery in Jogjakarta province (Central Java), while the private sector control about seven hatcheries. In East Java, freshwater prawn is cultured in brackishwater ponds. Freshwater prawn culture has also spread to some areas of Bali Island, e.g., in Gianyar, Klungkung, Buleleng and Tabanan.

      Indonesia has been recognized as the center of origin of the giant freshwater prawn because about 19 identified species are found in almost all islands of the country (Holthuis, 1980). However, this genetic resource is not yet fully used in freshwater prawn culture. Although freshwater prawn culture has been widely developed in Indonesia, some problems have been encountered, e.g., declining growth rate, disease, and the small edible portion (abdominal muscle).

      In recent years, the Government of Indonesia has stressed the need to increase the production of freshwater prawn. One way to increase production is through the genetic improvement program. In 2001, the GI Macro (Genetically Improved Macrobrachium rosenbergii), strain of freshwater prawn has been developed and released to farmers.
    • Meeting report

      Giant freshwater prawn culture in Indonesia. 

      E Nugroho & L Emmawati - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Indonesia is one of the countries that have high levels of biological diversity in terms of freshwater fishes, the country’s rich biological resources, characterized by a high level of endemism. About 30 endemic species of freshwater fishes are found in Sumatera, 149 species in Kalimantan, 12 species in Java, and 52 species in Sulawesi (Anonym, 1994; Kottelat et al.,1993). The country’s total freshwater area is 55 million ha consisting of lakes, dams, swamps and other water bodies. The potential area for freshwater pond fish culture is estimated at 233,124 ha with a production of 334,085 mt/year (DGF, Indonesia. 2001), of which about 5140 mt comprises the giant freshwater prawn.
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      Hatchery and pond culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Northern Mindanao 

      HE Dejarme - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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      Integrated physical and biological technologies for water recycling in shrimp farms. 

      P Songsangjinda - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Environment-friendly shrimp culture system has been an issue for improving shrimp farming and making it sustainable. In the past decade, Thailand adopted the open shrimp culture system, which consumed a lot of coastal and estuarine waters. The huge amount of nutrients and organic matter are dumped into the water receiving areas, resulting in eutrophication of the natural resource. A strategy developed to solve the problem was to reduce the water consumption in shrimp farms by recycling the water and re-using it for succeeding culture operations. The technologies that have been adopted for water treatment in recycling included physical, biological and chemical treatments. Since the effluent from shrimp farms is turbid, in high volume, and enriched with organic nutrients, the integration of physical and biological treatment was considered a potential treatment system that can be used extensively in recycling the effluents from shrimp farms.
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      Anon. - 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Meeting report

      List of participants. 

      Anon. - 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Meeting report

      List of participants. 

      Anon. - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Meeting report

      The macrobrachium culture industry in Thailand. 

      S Uraiwa & P Sodsuk - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachum rosenbergii) is one of the most important economic species in Thailand as well as in many Southeast Asian countries. It is highly demanded as food for the Thais that lead to its gradual over-catching from the natural waters every year. Thus, domestication experiments on the Macrobrachium have been conducted by the Department of Fisheries since 1956 to increase prawn production (Sidthimunka and Bhukaswan, 1982). This resulted in the nationwide extension of its culture technology to a number of commercial giant freshwater prawn culture companies. Now this species has become one of the economic commodities in the country’s aquaculture industry. Recently, statistics report showed that the total prawn culture in 2002 increased by 38% from the year 1996, while the total value in the same year increased by 89% from the year 1996. The statistics also showed that in 1996 and 2002, the total production were 7200 and 10,000 mt, respectively, valued at 596.3 and 1,117.6 million Thai Baht, respectively (Department of Fisheries and Suwannatos, 2003). The market price per kg of freshwater prawn, which varies according to the prawn sizes, has been increasing since 1989. In 1997, the large, medium and small sizes increased by 76%, 123% and 81% from those in year 1989, respectively.