Conservation and Ecological Management of Philippine Lakes in Relation to Fisheries and Aquaculture : Proceedings of the National Seminar-Workshop held on October 21-23, 1997, INNOTECH, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.

This volume documents the proceedings of the national seminar-workshop held October 21-23, 1997 in Quezon City which was co-organized by SEAFDEC/AQD, PCAMRD and DA-BFAR. The proceedings contains three plenary papers: (1) SEAFDEC contribution to the ecological awareness of Philippine lakes, (2) sustainable development of lake resources and the R&D agenda, and (3) aquaculture practices and their impact on lakes. Eleven technical papers discussed Lake Mahagnao in Leyte, Laguna de Bay, Lake Sebu in South Cotabato, Naujan Lake in Mindoro, Lake Danao in Cebu, Lake Buhi in Camarines Sur, Taal Lake in Taal. Abstracts of 13 other papers and posters are included in the volume. Two annexes follow: listing of lakes in the country and their common problems, recommended strategies, and action plans.

Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    SEAFDEC contribution to the ecological awareness of Philippine Lakes 

    RR Platon - In National Seminar-Workshop on the Conservation and Ecological Management of Philippine Lakes in Relation to Fisheries and Aquaculture (1997 : Innotech, Diliman, Quezon City), 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Since 1976 the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD), through its Binangonan Freshwater Station has been continuously involved in research on various aspects of inland waters, with emphasis on Laguna de Bay. Lakes Paoay, Taal, Sampaloc and Naujan have also been studied to a limited extent. Research efforts focused on monitoring activities of various biological and physico-chemical parameters in the lake; pollution studies; improvement of practices towards an environmentally sound and sustainable aquaculture enterprise; socio-economic impacts of aquaculture on lakeshore communities and other related activities. The Department has been actively collaborating with various national and international agencies as well as non-government organizations in its effort, to improve its research capabilities. The research results have been published in both local and international scientific journals and proceedings.
  • Conference paper

    The decline of native fishes and fisheries and the rise of aquaculture in lakes and rivers in the Philippines 

    T Bagarinao - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    This paper reviews historical and recent data on biodiversity, fisheries, exotic fishes, and aquaculture in Philippine lakes and rivers. The country's lakes and rivers are poor in primary freshwater fishes because the Philippines' only connection with the Asian mainland had been through land bridges between Borneo, the Sulu islands, Mindanao, Palawan and Mindoro - in which islands endemic carps have evolved. Philippine lakes and rivers instead have secondary freshwater fishes such as gobies, migratory marine fishes such as mullets, and some snails, clams, and prawns. Most lakes and rivers have been severely degraded and their biodiversity reduced by siltation, pollution, overfishing, and the establishment of exotic fishes from other countries or elsewhere in the country. Many fishes first described in the Philippines in 1910-1940 by Seale, Herre, and Filipino ichthyologists have not been collected in recent years. The Laguna de Bay fishery in the early 1960s was largely dependent on the 'ayungin' Therapon plumbeus, 'biyang puti' Glossogobius giurus, and the 'kanduli' Arius manilensis that together comprised 95% of the annual 83,000 mt; another 19,000 mt came from shrimps and 245,000 mt from snails. Fishing and snail-dredging were so intense that catches declined and the whole lake fishery collapsed around 1970. After the collapse, the primary production of the lake increased and milkfish and tilapia became natural choices for aquaculture. Lake Lanao became famous for its species flock of 18 endemic carps, but these are now extinct, except perhaps two species. In 1963, these carps contributed 981 mt to the fishery, other native fishes 269 mt, shrimps and snails 257 mt, and introduced fishes 479 mt. Twenty years later, endemic carps have made up only 92 mt, native fishes 141 mt, shrimps and snails 164 mt, and introduced fishes 312 mt of the harvest from the lake. The 'kadurog' G. giurus, probably stocked in the lake with milkfish larvae in 1955, proliferated in the 1960s and apparently drove the endemic carps to extinction. The 'katolong' Hypseleotris agilis was first seen in the lake in 1977 and has since outcompeted the 'kadurog'. In Lakes Taal and Naujan, migratory marine fishes have been caught by fish corrals set across the outlets, but the catch along Pansipit River has fallen since the turn of the century and that in Butas River fell from 62 mt in 1977 to 17 mt in 1983. Catches of the endemic sardine Harengula tawilis in Lake Taal fluctuated between 4,400 mt in 1983 to 11,300 mt in 1990 and 1,400 mt in 1994. Cage culture of tilapia and milkfish has been going on in Lake Taal for 10 years. In Lakes Buhi and Bato, the endemic 'sinarapan' Mistichthys luzonensis almost disappeared due to fine-net fishing and tilapia stocking; catches have been 50-90 mt in 1983-93 but zero in 1994.
  • Conference paper

    Impact assessment of cage culture in Lake Taal, Philippines. 

    MM Alcañices, RC Pagulayan & AC Mamaril - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    The environmental impact of cage culture on water quality of Lake Taal was assessed from March 1996 through February 1997. Three stations were considered namely: Balas, which serves as station 1 (non-cage area) and Sampaloc and Laurel, stations 2 and 3 (cage areas), respectively. Monthly water samples with two replicates were collected using a van Dorn sampler at 0, 5, 10 and 15-m depths in all stations. Below surface water from the inside of the cages was also collected. Water temperature, water transparency, pH, and conductivity were determined in situ. Dissolved oxygen, chloride, NO3, NH3, PO4, and total P were analyzed in the laboratory. Phytoplankton density and algal biomass (through cholorophyll a) and primary productivity indices were determined with the light-and-dark bottle method.

    Of the water quality parameters, conductivity and DO had significant differences between non-cage and cage areas. Conductivity gave significant difference (P<0.01) between control and cage area during the wet season. Highest conductivity value (2100 µ S/cm) was observed in station 3. Mean values of DO gave significant differences (P<0.05) in the different stations throughout the study period. A decrease of DO to 2.5 mg/1 was observed below 10-m depth around the cage areas. Analysis indicates that cage culture leads to oxygen depletion in the water column. The presence of cage structures decreased the flow rate resulting to weak circulation. The reduced water circulation in effect decreased the supply of oxygen and removal of toxic waste metabolites from the vicinity of the fish farm, and reduced the supply of plankton. These results suggest that the impact of cage culture in Lake Taal is minor but can alter the lake ecosystem if not properly managed. Zoning and continuous water quality monitoring are needed.
  • Conference paper

    Lake Lanao: Its past and present status 

    RP Rosagaron - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Geographically located in Central Mindanao, Lake Lanao is the second largest lake in the Philippines. The lake is famous locally for its various uses and internationally for its endemic cyprinids. This paper intends to inform the local leaders and the national planners about Lake Lanao's dwindling fisheries resources, the extinction of some endemic cyprinids, and the current interventions as well as suggested action plans to increase fish production and to conserve the remaining species in the lake. The past and present studies on the lake are also reviewed. Early and latest statistics on the lake's fisheries production are presented to invite the interest of all sectors in coming up with the integrated approach to protect, conserve and increase its fisheries production. Local and national interventions to conserve and increase fisheries production are discussed. These include the setting up of BFAR Fisheries Station in Kialdan, Marantao; the establishment of a fish hatchery in Poona, Marantao by Southern Philippines Development Authority; the formation of Save Lake Lanao Movement by the local leaders; the creation of Lake Lanao Research and Development Council; the current concern of Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development-DOST; and the extension and research and development thrusts of the Mindanao State University, College of Fisheries in Marawi City.
  • Conference paper

    Species and proximate composition of Laguna de Bay phytoplankton cultured in three different nitrogen-phosphorus ratios and their utilization by Nile tilapia. 

    ML Cuvin-Aralar, U Focken, K Becker & CB Santiago - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Natural phytoplankton populations from Laguna de Bay were used in outdoor batch culture experiment in 1-ton capacity circular concrete tanks and 60-liter glass aquaria for a maximum duration of 72 days. The treatments consisted of the following nitrogen-phosphorus ratios: 2N: 1P, 6N: 1P, and 12N: 1P. The growth and species composition of phytoplankton were monitored in each of the three treatments. The phytoplankton were partially harvested at weekly intervals. The proximate composition of the freeze-dried harvest was also analyzed. The freeze-dried harvest was also used to feed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) to determine effects of the different N-P ratios on the utilization of phytoplankton by fish. The fish were fed isonitrogenously and ration ranged from maintenance requirement for the first week to 3 times maintenance requirement for the succeeding weeks. Results showed that green algae, particularly the Chlorococcales group, dominated all the cultures. This was followed by diatoms. The blue-green algae consisted the third group in all treatments. Gross energy, crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber and crude ash content of the phytoplankton harvest did not vary significantly among treatments. However, crude protein expressed as percentage of organic matter was significantly higher in the treatment using 12N: 1P compared to those cultured in lower N-P ratios. Nile tilapia fed phytoplankton from 12N: 1P and 6N: 1P ratios showed significantly better growth than those fed with phytoplankton cultured in the lowest N-P ratio.
  • Conference paper

    Stock assessment of commercially important fishes in Naujan Lake. 

    RA Pasumbal & CT Perez - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    The study aimed to assess the capture fisheries of Naujan Lake with emphasis on commercially important fish species and to determine the extent of their exploitation.

    Four major fish landing centers in the municipalities of Socorro, Pola, Victoria and Naujan were surveyed from May 1995 to December 1996. Eight types of fishing gear had been recorded. The most commonly used was gill net or 'pante', followed by fish pot 'bubo', fish corral 'baklad', spear 'salapang', spear gun 'pana', fish trap 'patanga', encircling net 'takilis' and long line 'kitay'.

    Tilapia comprised 61% of the total fish production of the lake, followed by therapon (16%), goby (4%) and mudfish (2%). The other species caught were 'pla salid', catfish, mullet, carp, milkfish and shrimp, which contributed 17% to the total production. Migratory fishes like the mullet and milkfish, on the other hand, showed a declining trend in production.
  • Conference paper

    Parasitic crustaceans in fishes from some Philippine Lakes. 

    NC Lopez - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Parasitic crustaceans are among the most harmful parasites of fishes. Certain species cause disease outbreaks and mortalities in aquaculture, facilities, and sometimes in natural systems, resulting in serious economic losses. Edible fishes from some Philippine lakes also show infestation by parasitic crustaceans. The branchiuran, Argulus indicus Weber, and the copepod, Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, were recovered from the skin and base of the dorsal fin, respectively, of the mudfish Channa striata from Laguna de Bay. L. cyprinacea was also found on the white goby Glossogobius giurus in Naujan Lake. In La Mesa Reservoir, the gills of wild populations of tilapias Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii, white goby, and silvery theraponid Therapon plumbeus were infected with the copepod, Ergasilus philippinensis Velasquez. An isopod, Alitropus typus Edwards, was recovered from the buccal and gill cavities of several fishes from Lake Taal, namely; the mud gudgeon Ophiocara aporos, cardinal fish Apogon thermalis, silvery theraponid, and cage cultured Oreochromis niloticus. Previous reports and above finding indicate wide host specificity of the parasites. Of these four parasites, only Ergasilus philippinensis has not been reported to cause mass mortality in cultured fishes. Measures should be undertaken to prevent their introduction to other water bodies in which they do not yet occur.
  • Conference paper

    Pasig River backflow and its effect on the water quality of Laguna de Bay, Philippines. 

    AC Gonzal, CB Santiago & WB Afuang - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    The backflow of Pasig River into Laguna de Bay was closely monitored beginning April 28, 1997 based on the expected high tide in Manila Bay and the average low lake level of 2.5 m in Station W (N 14°27.7'; E 121°08.5') located at the west lobe of the lake. Saltwater intrusion was first detected during of the highest high tide (i.e., 1.5 m at 1430 h) on April 29. Water from Pasig River flowing into the lake was black and had a characteristic odor of hydrogen sulfide. With the light house (or 'Parola') at the mouth of Pasig River as the reference point, movement of saltwater in the lake was monitored and the area affected estimated with the use of GPS 38 Personal Navigator®. Up to mid May (Week 2), the movement of saltwater into Laguna de Bay was hampered by the intermittent calm weather conditions and moderately strong northeasterly wind ('hanging amihan'). When the wind direction shifted and the southwesterly wind ('hanging habagat') became strong on Week 3 (May 18 to 20), strong water movement and fast diffusion of saltwater into the other parts of the west lobe of the lake were observed. During this period of rapid change in the lake (May 21-24), a high frequency monitoring was conducted in Station W. Fluctuations in chloride ion concentration, conductivity and total dissolved solids, Secchi disc reading, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and other parameters were noted in the station. Heavy rainfall in the area on May 24-26 and run-offs from the watershed and overflow from the river tributaries increased the lake level. The elevation of the water level resulted in draining out of the lake water into Pasig River to Manila Bay and this practically ended the year's saltwater intrusion into Laguna de Bay. Movement of saltwater reached almost the whole area of the west and central lobes of the lake on the first week of June (week 5) as evidenced by the clearing of water in those areas. It was estimated that clearing of the entire lake because of saltwater movement takes about 2-3 months.
  • Conference paper

    Fish in a man-made lake: what is there to eat? (Ecological studies in La Mesa Reservoir) 

    RA Abesamis, AC Mamaril & NC Lopez - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Since 1975, a number of ecological studies have been done in La Mesa Reservoir (also known as La Mesa Dam or La Mesa Lake). Eight species of fish are known to occur in the lake; of these species, one is stocked to control the proliferation of algae. The plankton community of the reservoir has been found to be remarkably diverse, with at least 62 species of zooplankton and possibly 70 species of phytoplankton. The high biological diversity is due to this lake being a protected area as it is Metro Manila's main source of drinking water. A confluence of several factors that preserve this condition of high aquatic biodiversity is possible: (1) Little perturbation in its water quality and its watershed occurs. (2) During high water levels, numerous coves and embayments and the moderate depths create a myriad of ecological niches and refuges for the aquatic biota. (3) Plankton diversity is likely enhanced by abundance of edible algal species (for herbivorous zooplankton) and only occasional moderate algal blooms. (4) Low fish predation tolerates large-sized species in the plankton, i.e., Filipinodiaptomus insulanus, a copepod endemic to only a few large areas in Luzon. (5) Nuisance algae are controlled by stocking of tilapia fry and the occasional use of algicide (CuSO4).
  • Conference paper

    Sustainable development of Philippine lake resources: an agenda for research and development. 

    RDI Guerrero - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    There are 59-70 lakes in the Philippines. With the exception of Laguna de Bay and Lake Taal, little is known about Philippine lakes although they contribute as much as 15% to the total annual fisheries production of the country. There is need for an integrated basin approach for the sustainable management of Philippine lake resources. Among the research strategies recommended for sustainable management of Philippine lakes are: (1) studies on lake fisheries resources - fish stock assessment, effects of fishing and other human activities on lake productivity, the biology of major aquatic species, and the carrying capacity of lakes; and (2) lake management studies - the rational use of lakes, strengthening management, enforcement and institutional mechanisms, and socio-economics focused on the users of lakes.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture practices and their impact on Philippine Lakes. 

    DB Araullo - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    The rapid progress and development in the aquaculture sector during the past years has made an important contribution to the overall fish production in the Philippines. In 1996, 35.4% of the total fish production or 980,857 mt came from the aquaculture sector. Although milkfish from brackishwater ponds comprise the bulk of the produce, tilapia production from freshwater aquaculture in lakes, ponds and reservoirs is increasing annually. Fish cages and fish pens proliferate in most inland waters. The operation of such structures as livelihood for the coastal inhabitants has been recognized as a profitable venture.

    Many have gone into tilapia culture in ponds and small experimental cages in lakes and reservoirs in the 1980's. The success of tilapia culture in cages in the Bicol Region and Magat Dam in Isabela triggered the interest of other enterprising businessmen to expand the practice to other inland waters. However, problems of mass fish kill caused by deteriorating water quality have been reported.

    There is a need to strictly regulate the aquaculture practices; otherwise, more problems in the aquatic environment will be encountered. As freshwater aquaculture production is intensified, negative impact on the environment is also magnified. Under the Local Government Code, the management of inland waters is within the jurisdiction of the local government units with the assistance of the national government.

    For the proper management and sustainable use of inland water resources, this paper highlights the positive and negative impact of aquaculture practices on the aquatic environment.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary observations on the diel feeding patterns of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Laguna de Bay, Philippines, with the aid of the computer model MAXIMS. 

    H Richter, U Focken, K Becker, CB Santiago & WB Afuang - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in cages in Laguna de Bay, were sampled on two occasions in 1995, each time over a 24-hour cycle. The weights of stomach content were averaged and analysed with the computer model MAXIMS. The model predicted that, in May, larger fish feeding on natural food alone fed continuously from dawn to dusk, ingesting 4.9 to 5.4% of their body weight (wet weight basis) whereas smaller fish had two feeding periods per day, from sunrise to mid-morning and again from mid-afternoon until after sunset, ingesting between 13.0 and 13.7%. In August, fish were given supplemental feed that ran out around mid-day, after which they continued to ingest natural food. The fish ingested 3.8 to 4.0% supplemental feed and 4.4 to 4.7% natural food per day. In May, most of the stomach contents consisted of the blue-green alga Anabaena spiroides, whereas in August, the natural food was made up principally of detritus. On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that supplemental feed be given in several doses spread throughout the day.
  • Conference paper

    Zooplankton diversity in Philippine Lakes. 

    AC Mamaril - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Sustainable fisheries development partly depends on the availability of adequate zooplankton as principal food items of early life history stages of economically important fish species as well as of the adults of some species such as clupeids (e.g., Sardinella tawilis of Lake Taal in Batangas). The broad characteristics of the composition of freshwater zooplankton (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda) of natural and man-made lakes in the Philippines are compared with those of the Oriental Region, in particular, and other tropical regions, in general. Two species of calanoid copepods are endemic, a somewhat remarkable occurrence considering that calanoids are represented by only five known species in the Philippines and absent in many large tropical lakes. Daphnia, which almost invariably influences food-web interactions and structures of plankton communities in temperate lakes, still has to be recorded.
  • Conference paper

    Managing 'sinirapan' Mistichthys luzonensis Smith in Lake Buhi, Camarines Sur: Insights from its biology and population dynamics. 

    VS Soliman & MFHA Sergio - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    The population dynamics and related aspects of the biology of 'sinarapan' Mistichthys luzonensis Smith, the world's smallest commercial fish, are used as basis in formulating management strategies for this goby in Lake Buhi, Camarines Sur. Mesh size limit (4.1mm) and catch limit, estimated through length-based analytic fishery methods, are proposed. Yield-per-recruit analysis using length-frequency data for 11 months provided the quantitative indices used in estimating fishing limits. Closed season for 'sinarapan' was established from temporal pattern of recruitment and the reproductive biology of the species. Much of the data on 'sinarapan' came from studies in Lake Manapao. To improve the recruitment success of 'sinarapan', a habitat enhancement scheme in Lake Buhi is hereby recommended.
  • Conference paper

    Some limnological features of the northern shore areas of Volcano Island, Lake Taal. 

    NC Lopez, SN Javier & AC Mamaril - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Physico-chemical and biological features of the northern shore areas of Volcano Island, Lake Taal observed at monthly intervals from four stations during the period 1994 and 1996 indicate varied microhabitats inhabited by a variety of plants and animals. Physico-chemical characteristics of surface waters were: temperature, 28-35°C; dissolved oxygen content, 3.5-6.2 ppm; pH, 7.5-8.9; salinity, 0-24 ppt; and conductivity, 1.6-4.3 S cm-1. Substratum types were mainly sandy with pebbles or rocks or sandy-muddy. Characteristic submerged plants were the eelgrass Vallisneria gigantea and filamentous green algae. In the eelgrass region, atyid shrimps, mostly Ciridina gracilirostris, commonly occur. Snails such as Melanoides costellaris and Terebia granifera were the most abundant benthic animals collected. Other invertebrates identified from core samples were Corbicula manilensis, annelids, crustaceans and chironomid larvae.
  • Conference paper

    Mechanisms for lake formation in the Philippine archipelago. 

    RS Punongbayan & EL Listanco - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Topographic depressions, which when filled with water become lakes, can originate in a number of ways as a result of volcanic processes and activities, crustal and fault movements, stream processes, dissolution of rocks, downslope or mass movements, shoreline processes, glaciation, acolian processes, organic or animal activity and meteorite impacts. Man has also made both intentionally and unintentionally artificial depressions and dams that give rise to man-made lakes. But the mechanisms of formation of most Philippine lakes remain unknown although those of some are well established. Examples are cited in this paper. Lakes with similar mechanisms of formation may possess similar geomorphological, geological, and physico-chemical characteristics.

    Directions for Philippine lacustrine research should cover issues on 1) the still unknown origin of most Philippine lakes, 2) assessment of lake-related hazards and risk mitigation in order to reduce disasters, 3) history of climate change as recorded in lacustrine sediments, and 4) policies and strategies for better utilization and development of lake resources which must recognize the truth that lakes are but ephemeral features of the landscape and do not last forever.
  • Conference paper

    Autoecology of an endemic calanoid copepod: The first step in biodiversity conservation in Lakes. 

    NE Palomar & AC Mamaril - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Copepods, specifically calanoid copepods, play an important role in the productivity of aquatic ecosystems since they serve as a crucial link between primary producers and carnivores. In tropical reservoirs and lakes, they are not only a major source of food for many invertebrates and zooplanktivorous fish, but also good biological indicators. Calanoid/cyclopoid-cladoceran ratio is used in limnological studies as an indicator of water quality. In the past, studies in the Philippines on copepods and other freshwater zooplankton have dealt only on their taxonomy and distribution. Filipinodiaptomus insulanus is a calanoid copepod recognized as endemic to the country with its distribution restricted to the areas of Bulacan, Laguna and other parts of Rizal. Furthermore it is the only calanoid copepod found in the La Mesa Reservoir in Novaliches, Quezon City. This paper is a synthesis of three studies of F. insulanus obtained from La Mesa Reservoir. It aims to provide additional baseline information about the organism, particularly on its postembryonic development, feeding habits, and density fluctuations of its life history stage in the reservoir.
  • Conference paper

    A modelling of eutrophication in Laguna de Bay as a tool for rational resources management. 

    I Mitsumoto & AE Santiago - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    A lake model originally developed for Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultants Co., Ltd (METOCEAN) was used with modification to simulate the water quality of Laguna de Bay. The METOCEAN model made use of the 1984 meteorological and water quality data collected from different local government agencies. Hydraulic modeling was applied to obtain basic circulation patterns which the water quality modeling was based upon. Results of the hydraulic modeling suggests that steady backflow of saltwater from Pasig River reaches deep inside the bottom layer of the lake although the lake water flows out through the Pasig River. Thus, the water quality model for Laguna de Bay focused on the unique role of the salt water intrusion in limiting phytoplankton productivity. The effect of saltwater intrusion was simplified as the change of depth of euphotic zone in the lake water estimated from the Secchi disc transparency. For simplicity and expandability of the model as a predicting tool, Secchi disc transparency was the only forcing function considered in the study.

    Modelling resolution of water quality has 4 boxes horizontally and 3 levels vertically. Calibration of the water quality model was carried out by running the model repeatedly until satisfactory agreement with measured data was obtained under average wind condition (Eastern wind, 1.5 m/sec.) Other wind directions including no wind condition were also tested to see the effect of wind on water quality. Validation of the water quality model was done for 1985 to 1988 as continuing simulation from the calibration in 1984 under the average wind condition. Then simulation of the condition of the lake from 1991 to 1995 based on the 1984 data used in the calibration was tried changing only the Secchi disc transparency data.

    Initial results of the water quality model differentiated conditions with and without saltwater intrusion. Without saltwater backflow, higher concentration of total inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus and low dissolved oxygen especially in the bottom layer are predicted. Under this condition, release of large amounts of nutrients in the sediments is expected to be dominant source of total inorganic nitrogen in the lake. The study is the first attempt to model the lake. The model still needs calibration and validation with measured values of recent years before adapting its usefulness as a tool for predicting water quality of Laguna de Bay.
  • Conference paper

    An environmental assessment of the aquaculture potential of Lake Gawaan, Lake Lenneng and Lake Banao/Danum at the Mt. Province. 

    RG Dang-awan, M Estima, P Gayagay, A Pagtan & MAA Ramos - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    This study reviews the existing conditions of the three Mt. Province lakes: Lake Gawaan, Lake Lenneng and Lake Banao/Danum. Three mechanisms were employed. First is the overview of the resource capabilities. This includes the geographical, physical and biological characteristics, as well as the identification of nearby communities and the possible market distribution channels. The physical characteristics are the watershed type, color of water, kind of shoreline, source of water, water fluctuation levels and transparency/turbidity. Biological and chemical characteristics comprise the primary productivity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, pH, ammonia, and stock availability (catch composition, gear type, seasonal distribution and production rate). The second mechanism is the understanding of the limitations of the area and development prospects which could cater to the needs of the growing population. This tackles suitable aquaculture practices that may be adopted at the areas concerned in order to increase fish production at the Mt. Province. The last mechanism is to determine if the combined efforts of the non-government organizations, government agencies and other concerned groups could be improved to prevent a piece-rate resource development program. Results showed that favorable conditions for fish culture are present in the three lakes. Culture of fish in net cages and pens appears suitable for the lakes.
  • Conference paper

    A freshwater red alga Compsopogon coeruleus (Balbis) Montagne from Bucal, Calamba, Laguna, Philippines. 

    L Intong & MR Martinez-Goss - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
    Compsopogon coeruleus (Balbis) Montagne was observed for the first time along the shallow, flowing portions of the spring that occurs naturally in Bucal, Calamba, Laguna. A year-round study of some habitat conditions in the sampling site was done. These conditions included air and water temperature (mean=28.5°C), pH (mean=6.5), orthophosphate (mean=0.26 ppm), ammonia-nitrogen (mean =0.52 ppm), depth of water (mean=12 cm), speed of current (mean=0.19 m/s) and light intensity (mean=770 foot candles). This alga seems to be a good indicator of organic pollution.

    A description of morpho-cytological characteristics in situ and in culture is given. Better growth was observed in a defined inorganic medium using different mixing waters (distilled, tap and filtered Bucal waters) over plain mixing waters. Germination of presumptive cortical cells into uniseriate filaments and monospore germination was observed after about 10 days of incubation in all media.

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