Now showing items 1-20 of 626

    • Conference paper

      2010 and beyond: better seeds for sustainable aquatic food production in Asia. 

      MRR Romana-Eguia & EGT de Jesus-Ayson - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Asia is a major contributor to world aquaculture production. Most Asian countries have maintained their rank in the ten top aquatic food producing nations after developing refined techniques for major commercially important aquaculture species and promoting an increased awareness on the merits of using quality seeds (genetically enhanced or otherwise) as supplied in sufficient quantities. Quality seedstock simply means fit, clean , uniformly-sized seeds which could be eggs, fry, fingerling, juveniles and/or plantlets (for seaweeds) that subsequently express good performance attributes during culture. Beneficial traits refer to good color, shape, growth, efficient feed conversion, high reproduction, tolerance and survival when exposed to stressors (e.g. diseases, poor and/or extreme environmental conditions). Such traits are mostly heritable, hence, quality seeds are usually assumed as produced only by mating stocks perceived or proven to be genetically superior. Some bloodstocks may be genetically mediocre but if bred and manage properly through efficient farm protocols (suitable hatchery, nursery feeding and water management methods), may also produce good quality seeds. Success in the sustainable production of aquatic species for human consumption depends primarily on the availability of seedstock and adoption of optimal husbandry techniques among others. With the intensification of aquaculture systems and the environmental challenges such as those resulting from climate change, it is wise to continue considering both factors -- genetic quality and culture management as equally important in ensuring a steady production of good quality seeds and later, marketable products from aquaculture. Views on what, how and why better quality aquaculture seeds should be produced evolve as times change. To understand these concerns, this paper will cover: (a) the present state of fish seed production in Asia, (b) recent and current seedstock production issues that require attention, and (c) recommendations on how to further enhance aquaculture production in the region in the next decade through better quality seedstock.
    • Conference paper

      Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

      BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

      The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

      The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
    • Conference paper

      Acid sulfate soils and their management for brackishwater fishponds 

      VP Singh & AT Poernomo - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
      The major problems of fishponds build on acid sulfate soils are low pH; ionic imbalance and toxic levels of aluminum, iron, and sulfate; deficiency of phosphorus and poor response to fertilizer application; slow and poor growth of fish food organisms and fish; erosion of dikes; and in some cases fish kills. For economic operations and to remedy the problems of poor algal growth, fish kills and low yields, the acid in the pond bottom and dikes has to be neutralized or removed. A repeated sequence of drying, tilling, and flushing with seawater is a cheap, fast, and effective reclamation method that can be done in one dry season. Following this method, the dry soil pH improved; exchangeable aluminum, pyritic iron, active iron, active manganese, and sulfate decreased; and available phorphorus improved. The values for alkalinity, phosphate, aluminum, iron, and sulfate in the pond water improved greatly. Fish production was about three-fold more in reclaimed ponds (375-510 kg/ha) compared with the control ponds (50-173 kg/ha).
    • Conference paper

      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of penaeid shrimps: Global perspective 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 2012-14) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same.

      Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water.

      This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses held from 22-24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.
    • Conference paper

      Adoption of modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City, Pangasinan 

      RB Cerezo & JF Rebugio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Pangasinan’s vast fishpond and mangrove areas have not been fully tapped for mud crab (Scylla serrata) production. The main reason identified for this is the limited supply of crab seedstock. At present, there is no reliable source of seedstock in Pangasinan. The total requirement of Pangasinan for crab seedstock is estimated at 8.89 million based on the total area (ha) devoted to mud crab polyculture in the province. Mud crab growers in Pangasinan procure wild juvenile crabs from Cagayan, Bicol and Visayas but the volume is limited. Thus, an adoption of a modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City would be helpful. A model mud crab hatchery will be constructed to enable the local government unit (LGU) of Alaminos City to produce seedstock in commercial quantity to boost the production in Pangasinan and nearby provinces. The hatchery aims to produce 480,000 juvenile crabs per year to supply the nursery and grow-out ponds. Likewise, the hatchery technology will promote the mud crab hatchery and nursery technologies in the city of Pangasinan and coastal towns (Infanta, Dasol, Burgos, Agno, Bolinao, Anda, Bani, Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Binmaley, Dagupan City and San Fabian), and nearby provinces of La Union, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte and Zambales.
    • Other

      ADSEA '91-Foreword 

      EEC Flores - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Other

      ADSEA '91-Preliminary pages 

      F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.) - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Cover page, title page and table of contents
    • Conference paper

      Advances in diagnosis and management of shrimp virus diseases in the Americas 

      DV Lightner - In Y Inui & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings … Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The most important diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp, in terms of economic impact, in Asia, the Indo-Pacific, and the Americas, have infectious etiologies. Although diseases with bacterial, fungal, and parasitic etiologies are also important, certain virus-caused diseases stand out as the most significant. The pandemics due to the penaeid viruses WSSV, TSV, YHV, and IHHNV have collectively cost the penaeid shrimp industry billions of dollars in lost crops, jobs, and export revenue. Although not as sudden nor as catastrophic in their onset and course, certain bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases of shrimp have also been responsible for very significant production losses, and the relative importance of many of these diseases should not be discounted.

      The social and economic impacts of the pandemics caused by WSSV and TSV have been especially profound in the Americas, and in the wake of these viral pandemics the shrimp culture industry has sought ways to restore the industry’s levels of production to the “pre-virus” years. Central to improving disease) prevention and management strategies is the incorporation of the concepts of biosecurity into shrimp farm design and operational strategies. Disease management in shrimp aquaculture is an important component to biosecurity of farms and to the sustainability of individual farms, shrimp farming countries, or entire geographic regions. The first step in disease management requires the availability of accurate and reliable diagnostic methods and knowledge of the biology of the diseases of concern. The recognition of the need for biosecurity and disease management in the Americas is reflected in the recent proliferation of shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories in the Americas. Where there were only a handful of shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories a decade ago, there are 40 or more such laboratories serving the industry today.

      Diagnostic methods may be applied to determining the cause of disease(s) that are adversely affecting the culture performance or survival of farmed shrimp stocks or they may be used for surveillance purposes to screen for the presence of specific pathogens in otherwise healthy shrimp for the purpose of disease control. As diagnostic methods have improved and become more widely available, the interest in culturing specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp stocks in biosecure facilities has increased markedly in many regions in the Americas. The methods being used in shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories in the Americas were recently surveyed. Of the 40 laboratories contacted, 27 responded to the survey. Approximately 75% of the labs responding to the survey provide diagnostic services using both molecular (PCR, RT-PCR and gene probes) and classical (routine histology and microbiology) methods, while nearly all (93%) of the diagnostic labs offer diagnostic testing and screening services based on molecular methods (i.e. assays with gene probes and PCR/RT-PCR).
    • Book | Conference publication

      Advances in milkfish biology and culture: proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines 

      JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.) - 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
      Abstracts of the 17 papers presented at the conference are cited individually in this issue.
    • Oral presentation

      Advances in shrimp culture in China 

      R Liu - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Shrimp experimental ecology studies and the shrimp farming industry in China developed rapidly in the 1970's, and great strides have been made in the mass production of shrimp fry and the growing-out of marketable size shrimp since 1978. The total production of artificially reared shrimp fry and cultivated shrimp increased dramatically in the last few years.

      The improvement of water quality management and feed supply in larval rearing have resulted in increased production of shrimp fry up to 100,000-200,000 or even 300,000 fry/m3. Advances in the nutritional physiology and biochemistry of the digestive enzymes of juvenile and adolescent shrimp have enabled us to develop different kinds of for mulated feeds with high efficiency and low cost. Techniques for the transplantation and propagation of small benthic crustaceans (e.g. Corophium spp.) or polychaetes (e.g. Nereis spp.) to increase the benthos biomass for natural food of juvenile shrimp in nursery ponds have been developed and successfully practised. Improvement of culture techniques including shrimp pond management, has decreased the mortality of juvenile and young shrimp and increased yields of cultivated shrimp in the country. Highest production of 9,000 kg/ha has been achieved in the semi-intensive culture pond.
    • Conference paper

      Agroindustrial waste products as sources of cheap substrates for algal single-cell protein production 

      MT Zafaralla, LR Vidal & LE Travina - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Four types of agroindustrial waste products were tested for their suitability as substrates for Chlorella single-cell protein production. Based on cell density on day 7, unsterilized rice straw filtrate, Tris-buffered inorganic medium (control), unsterilized slop (1%) and unsterilized rice hull filtrate were suitable culture media. Dry weight yield after two weeks did not vary among media. Gross protein content of algae was highest in rice straw with or without sterilization. Substrates for algal SCP production are assessed on the basis of their nutrient content, pH, and hygienic acceptability.
    • Conference paper

      Algal production and utilization relevant to aquaculture in the Philippines 

      JB Pantastico, JP Baldia, CC Espegadera & DM Reyes Jr. - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An outline is given of research conducted at the Aquaculture Department of SEAFDEC at Rizal, Philippines regarding algal culture and utilization. Culture methods for both brackishwater and freshwater algae are described and details given of applications of microalgae in the aquaculture industry, which include feed for fish and shrimp larvae.
    • Conference paper

      Antibacterial chemotherapy in aquaculture: review of practice, associated risks and need for action 

      V Inglis - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This paper briefly reviews the use of chemicals to prevent and treat bacterial diseases in aquaculture, and provides a detailed summary of the current state of knowledge on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in fish and shellfish. The topics covered include mechanisms of resistance, resistance of bacterial fish pathogens, resistance to antibacterial agents associated with use in aquaculture, and factors causing selection of resistant variants. Emphasis is placed on avoiding and solving problems related to bacterial resistance in aquaculture, and recommendations on antibiotic usage in aquaculture are made.
    • Conference paper

      Antioxidant properties of tert-butylhydroquinone and propyl gallate in frozen minced sprats 

      EB Panggat, SW Hanson & M Hole - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Relative effects of the combination of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate (PG) with or without a sequestering agent (EDTA or citric acid, C A ) on rancidity development in minced sprats stored at -15 C were determined by following the changes in peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid values, sensory scores, and fatty acid composition of lipid extracts. The combination of 0.02% TBHQ and 0.02% PG was most effective in reducing the rate of oxidative rancidity development in frozen sprats. It allowed an extended induction period of at least 250 days. Lowering the concentration of the additives from 0.02% to 0.01% significantly reduced their antioxidant effectiveness giving rise to larger losses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Addition of either EDTA or CA to the mixture of 0.02% TBHQ and 0.02% PG did not prevent significant losses of 20:5 and 22:6 fatty acids.
    • Conference paper

      Antithamnion sparsum , its life history and hybridization with A. defectum in culture 

      IK Lee & SM Boo - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Antithamnion sparsum isolated from the southern and western coasts of Korea showed a basically Polysiphonia -type life history. However, it sometimes exhibited a monoecious reproduction and the carpospores released from the cystocarp by self-fertilization unexpectedly developed into plants bearing spermatangia alone. These male plants were not functional up to 60 days in culture. The results of intraspecific crosses between populations of A. sparsum were successful and the hybrid carpospores gave rise to normal tetrasporophytes. On the other hand, the interspecific crosses between A. sparsum and A. defectum were only partly successful, as evidenced by gonimoblast development and the release of carpospores in case of A. sparsum (male) x A. defectum (female), but not in A. sparsum (female) x A. defectum (male). These results seem to suggest that both species are still undergoing speciation.
    • Conference paper

      Appendix 

      Anon. - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Application of DNA-based markers in stock enhancement programs 

      MRR Romana-Eguia - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MRR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Application of the United States Soybean Export Council program's soy-optimized floating feeds and low volume, high density cage aquaculture technologies 

      LLL Manalac, M Cremer & HP Lan - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The United States Soybean Export Council s (USSEC) Soy-In-Aquaculture (SIA) project in the Philippines introduced the Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture production methodology in 2003. The aim of this technology is to maximize farmers profit, improve productivity, reduce feed conversion ratios (FCR) and limit environmental degradation. The Philippine fish farmers were very conservative and hesitant about adopting the USSEC SIA Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture technology, particularly the new feeding techniques using extruded floating feeds. This conservative attitude was highlighted with different projects using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), milkfish (Chanos chanos) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) in USSEC SIA LVHD cage feeding demonstrations conducted in different commercial farms in the Philippines.
    • Conference paper

      Aquaculture and prospects of cage and pen culture in Nigeria 

      SJ Ikotun & O Omoloyin - In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pen Cage Culture of Fish, 11-22 February 1979, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1979 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre
      After a brief description of present day acquaculture in Nigeria, the prospects of cage and pen culture are discussed. It is concluded that with the availability of natural rivers, lakes, dams, construction materials, culturable species and ready market for fish, the prospect of cage and pen culture is quite bright in Nigeria.