Report on the Regional Seminar-Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Aquaculture 24-27 June 2003, Bangkok, Thailand.

Since 1998, AQD has already implemented a five-year program on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture addressing not only shrimps but also other aquaculture species such as grouper, mangrove red snapper, mud crab, etc. This was intended to investigate ways of harnessing degraded mangrove areas for aquaculture using environment-friendly approach, and to develop sustainable aquaculture in existing mangrove areas.

The progress of the program was however, overtaken by a series of events that led to a slight change of focus. During the First FCG Meeting in March 1999, the Program on the Promotion of Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture in Southeast Asia was approved under the FCG collaborative mechanism to be funded through the Trust Fund of the Fisheries Agency of the Government of Japan. The ensuing Twenty-Second Meeting of the SEAFDEC Program Committee in November 1999 endorsed to the FCG a revised framework for the Program on the Promotion of Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture in Southeast Asia giving more focus on shrimp culture. Thus, the Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Culture Project, which evolved from the AQD’s program, was initiated in 2000 adopting four major approaches: verification and pilot demonstration, research, training and information dissemination through publications.

The experiences in shrimp culture in Thailand and the Philippines served as basis for the initial technology verification and demonstration activities of the Project. These experiences were documented in the form of state-of-the-art compilations on environment-friendly shrimp farming intended to serve as guide for shrimp growers in the region. These compilations were later updated and produced into a Manual describing environment-friendly shrimp culture method using two systems: low-discharge and closed recirculating. Using these two systems, verification and demonstration activities have been conducted in the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Myanmar with remarkable success. The successful results obtained from the current verification and demonstration activities in the aforementioned countries have encouraged other countries to express their desire for similar verification runs. During the later part of 2003, a pilot demonstration activity was started in Cambodia. In addition, initial efforts were also made in November 2003 for the conduct of a similar demonstration activity in Malaysia.

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Recent Submissions

  • Meeting report

    Promotion of mangrove-friendly shrimp aquaculture in Southeast Asia. 

    Sulit, Virgilia T. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This publication comprises two major parts : Report on the Regional Seminar-Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand, 24-27 June 2003 ; Report on the Mangrove Friendly Shrimp Culture Project: Phase I (2000-2003).
  • Meeting report

    Integrated physical and biological technologies for water recycling in shrimp farms. 

    P Songsangjinda - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Environment-friendly shrimp culture system has been an issue for improving shrimp farming and making it sustainable. In the past decade, Thailand adopted the open shrimp culture system, which consumed a lot of coastal and estuarine waters. The huge amount of nutrients and organic matter are dumped into the water receiving areas, resulting in eutrophication of the natural resource. A strategy developed to solve the problem was to reduce the water consumption in shrimp farms by recycling the water and re-using it for succeeding culture operations. The technologies that have been adopted for water treatment in recycling included physical, biological and chemical treatments. Since the effluent from shrimp farms is turbid, in high volume, and enriched with organic nutrients, the integration of physical and biological treatment was considered a potential treatment system that can be used extensively in recycling the effluents from shrimp farms.
  • Meeting report

    Use of mangroves for aquaculture: Myanmar. 

    UT Win - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquaculture has only started to develop rapidly in the past few decades, due to better knowledge of culture species, improved methodologies and techniques in breeding, nutrition and increasing demand for food fish of high-value species such as shrimps, sea bass and groupers.

    Mangrove deforestation has an impact on shrimp culture itself, the success of the latter (when traditional culture method is used) depends on stocking of wild fry. For semi-intensive and intensive shrimp culture, the number of wild caught spawners may decrease because wild shrimp populations also use mangrove swamps as its feeding ground.

    Other negative effects of mangrove destruction to make way to shrimp ponds, include water pollution from pond effluents, sedimentation from the release of solid materials from pond, interruption of the tidal water flow, dwindling natural shrimp and fish stock due to increased pollution or product contamination due to indiscriminate use of chemicals.

    Chemicals and drugs (antibiotic) should not be used in fish and shrimp culture for prevention and control of bacteria and viral diseases. In order to ensure the sustainable development of aquaculture, it is important to bear in mind the interdependence of technology and natural resource under various socioeconomic setting.
  • Meeting report

    Capacity of mangroves to process shrimp pond effluents. 

    JH Primavera - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Shrimp culture has been criticized for causing mangrove loss and discharging effluents laden with chemicals, organic matter and nutrients into waterways. Hence the SEAFDEC Council mandated SEAFDEC/AQD to undertake studies that integrate aquaculture with mangroves. Thus, the Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Culture Project follows two models: (a) the use of mangrove forests as filters to process effluents from intensive culture ponds, and (b) aquasilviculture which integrates low-density culture of crabs, etc. with mangroves. Worldwide only a few projects to date have tested mangroves as nutrient filters, hence the need to focus on this property of mangroves.
  • Meeting report

    The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Cambodia. 

    SL Song - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Natural conditions of the coastal and ecosystems of Cambodia have made this country rich of biodiversity resources. Cambodia’s 435 km coastline is covered with large estuaries with about 85,100 ha of mangrove forests (Nelson 1999). Even the coastline disadvantageously compares to that of other countries of the Southeast China Sea region, but its natural creations such as large and small bays, number of big and small inshore and off-shore islands, sea floor, oceanic current, freshwater rivers and streams, weather etc., support the diversification of all bio-resources. Fortunately, due to the fact that most Cambodians are interested in inland rather than coastal aquaculture, as well as suitable development management and conservation policies of the Government in the past, these natural habitats remained pristine until 1970. However, the habitats have been disturbed because of the various exploitation and development works for several decades during the wartime and even after, due to lack of managerial strategy.

    Cambodia had joined the Biodiversity Convention since February 1994, but until now, due to economic depression and poverty, the national awareness on the importance of biodiversity conservation is very limited. The crowded competition on exploitation of nature including coastal and marine resources, have been very aggressive in recent years that degraded the natural environment faster. Currently, many efforts and attempts by NGOs and international organizations have been made in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, to alleviate the marine and coastal resources pressures.
  • Meeting report

    Shrimp culture and mangroves: Brunei Darussalam. 

    SHAIbSH Nekman - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Brunei Darussalam is a coastal state located in the north-western portion of Borneo island within latitudes 5o 05’ N and 4o 00’ N and longitudes 114o 04’ E and 115o 22’ E. The country has a land area of 5765 km2 (576,400 ha.) divided administratively into four districts, i.e. Brunei-Muara, Tutong, Belait and Temburong. The coastline of the country is roughly 130 km long, fronting the South China Sea and shares a common border with the east Malaysian State of Sarawak. The main population centers are in the coastal zone, accounting for over 85% of the population (305,100 in 1996). It is a Malay Islamic Monarchy and has a stable economy largely dependent on the exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons.
  • Meeting report

    The use of mangroves in Malaysia 

    AHb Abdul Shukor - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Meeting report

    The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Indonesia. 

    A Sunaryanto - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Indonesia has more than 17,500 islands and 81,000 km of coastline which bears the biggest mangrove area in the world, based on the data given by a source in 1982, which stated that mangrove areas was 4.25 million ha or 27 % of the mangrove areas in the world.

    Later data in 1987 and 1993 the total mangrove areas were only 3.23 and 2.49 million ha, respectively, and theses have been reportedly reduced by about 1.0 and 0.8 million ha, respectively, allegedly due to aquaculture. Various sources also supply different data, but generally, the tendency of deforestation in mangrove areas is also shown.

    Brackishwater pond culture was always suspected to be the main cause of the deforestation. Nevertheless, the development of brackishwater pond area does not support the allegations. From the data given by the Directorate General of Fisheries, brackishwater pond area in 1982, 1987 and 1993 are 220,400 ha, 263,200 and 331,800 ha, respectively, which means only about 22% ha (of the 1.0 million ha reduction) and 41% ha (of the 0.8 million ha reduction) may have caused the mangrove area reduction. In reality, not all of the brackishwater ponds are developed in mangrove areas as some of them are in coastal sand areas.
  • Meeting report

    The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Philippines 

    RE Dieta & FC Arboleda - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    According to the National Forest Resource Inventory (NFRI), the estimated remaining area of mangrove forests in the Philippines in 1988 is 139,100 ha (DENR 1994). Of the total 139,100 ha mangrove forests, 78,593 ha are found within the mangrove forest reservations. Presidential Proclamation (PP) 2151 declares approximately 4326 ha as mangrove wilderness areas, while PP 2152 declares an aggregate 74,268 ha as mangrove swamp forest reserves.

    Approximately 95% of these mangroves are secondary growth and only 5% are old growth mangroves. These old growth mangrove forests are mostly located in Palawan Island. Results of a survey revealed that Palawan covers 35% of the conservation area followed by Surigao del Norte, which covers 22% of the total mangrove forest reserve. Surigao del Norte covers more than 50% of mangrove wilderness areas followed by Bohol with 29%. However, recent survey showed that there are mangrove reservation areas converted and developed for aquaculture purposes. Portions of the mangrove swamp forest reserves are found in Palawan, Quezon, Camarines Norte, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental, Davao, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur and Zamboanga del Sur.
  • Meeting report

    Evaluation of seawater irrigation for intensive marine shrimp farming. 

    C Sangrungruang - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The seawater irrigation system has benefited the intensive marine shrimp culture making shrimp culture sustainable and increasing shrimp production. The results obtained from this research study indicated that the adverse effects of shrimp farms on mangrove and costal environments around the irrigation system could be controlled and minimized. There are three main critical control points identified in this study that need to be considered: 1) Supply canals in the system should be cleaned and renovated every 2-3 years. 2) Wastewater treatment system should be monitored to avoid the accumulation of solid wastes while the solid wastes should be properly managed. 3) The seawater irrigation system can minimize shrimp pathogens from entering the culture ponds, however for disease prevention, farmers should adopt good aquaculture practices including pond preparation, seed quality, and prevention of disease carriers.

    Managing the seawater irrigation system needs a systematic teamwork. The above critical control points of the system should be monitored regularly and managed properly. The pond manager should assess the system regularly to prevent the adverse effects to the shrimp farms and to the environment.
  • Meeting report

    Mitigation plan on the use of mangroves for aquaculture: Thailand. 

    S Tookwinas - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mangrove forest is one of the important coastal natural resources of Thailand, however, mangrove forests have deteriorated very rapidly at a rate of more than 50% of the mangrove loss during 1961–1996. The utilization and destruction of mangrove forest has been seriously discussed in many fora. Shrimp farming is one activity, which has disturbed the mangrove forests. According to the inventory and analysis of LANDSAT5 TM satellite imagery data of 1993, only 17.49% of shrimp farms are located in mangrove forests and only 7.36% in the productive area. In addition 10.10% of shrimp farms are in unproductive or upland area, which have been leased legally by the farmers. Therefore, the Royal Thai Government has been working closely with the local communities and NGOs to implement a mangrove reforestation program targeting a replanting of 24,394.64 ha. As a result, the mangrove area has increased to 252,750.88 ha in 2001.
  • Meeting report

    Nutrient cycles: Nutrient dynamics in culture ponds. 

    NV Golez - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The general over-development of aquaculture had profound disturbance on the surrounding ecosystem, affecting, not only fisheries, but aquaculture itself through release of effluent loaded with nutrients into open waters leading to eutrophication and deterioration of water quality. Shrimp aquaculture is one of the fastest growing economic activities in the Asia-Pacific region, where almost 80% of the world production of farmed shrimp occurs, but has slowed down recently for a number of reasons. These include eutrophication of coastal waters, mangrove destruction, stock losses due to disease outbreaks, primarily as a result of unrestricted expansion and environmental problems from mismanagement and over intensification (Phillips et al., 1993). Estimates of N and P quantities (95% of the N and 71% of P) entering waterways from shrimp pond indicate most of the materials originate from the added feeds and fertilizer, hence, water and soil quality in pond become a balance between metabolites pond inputs, shrimp wastes and on water exchange (Briggs & Smith, 1994 (Macintosh & Phillips, 1992; Briggs & Funge-Smith, 1994). Feed input is the major factor that causes deterioration of pond bottom and water quality (Boyd, 1992). Several processes may limit eutrophication by improving shrimp feed stability through extrusion, adoption of biofilters and bioaugmentation with the use of commercially available “waste digester” and “probiotics” through bacteria mineralization.
  • Meeting report

    Mangrove plantation for enhancing food web in water recycling shrimp farms. 

    W Chutchawanchaipan - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Environmental deterioration in ponds and costal waters has been a common evidence after each intensive shrimp culture due to the accumulation of organic wastes and occurrence of eutrophication processes. Mangrove is a wetland that potentially supports the natural food web in the estuary and coastal areas. The planting of mangroves in recycling shrimp farms would serve the purpose of developing sustainable shrimp farms by utilizing the enriched organic matters and nutrients thus enhancing the natural food web in the shrimp farms. However, mangrove trees in pond dikes tend to grow small and the roots may not be able to support the tree during pond erosion resulting in the mortality of the mangrove trees. Brackishwater weeds, which cover the soil in the pond dikes, could serve the function of the young mangrove trees.
  • Meeting report

    Studies on sustainable production systems of aquatic animals in brackish mangrove areas. 

    T Shimoda - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) and the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2001 for the promotion of fisheries and aquaculture research and development in Southeast Asia. Under the said MOU, five collaborative research studies have been implemented at AQD in Iloilo, Philippines. In addition, JIRCAS also implements projects relevant to sustainable production systems of aquatic animals in brackish mangrove areas.
  • Meeting report

    Development of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) seed production and culture technology in the Mekong Delta Region of Vietnam: A review of the JIRCAS Project at Cantho University. 

    MN Wilder, HY Ogata, NT Phuong, NA Tuan, TTT Hien & TN Hai - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is a region rich in aquatic resources having high potential for aquaculture development. Inland aquaculture in the Mekong Delta has greatly increased since the last decade. Fish culture carried out in combination with other agricultural activities such as animal husbandry and rice cultivation, and intensive aquaculture in ponds and cages have been the dominant forms of fish production. However, the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, has recently become a species of economic significance and the target of aquaculture activity in the Mekong Delta. M. rosenbergii is cultured throughout the region in the rice fields, ponds, orchard gardens and in pens along river banks. The major constraints in this industry are seed supply and culture techniques, becoming the major obstacles for the further development of the culture of this species.

    In a collaborative research project implemented between the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) and Cantho University (CTU) since 1994, studies have been carried out on various aspects relating to the establishment of M. rosenbergii seed production and culture technology. The project is now in the middle of its second phase and has generated a great deal of scientific and practical information. This paper presents an overview of the achievements of this project.
  • Meeting report

    Training course on mangrove-friendly shrimp aquaculture. 

    PL Torres Jr. - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The culture of shrimps is a worldwide multi-dollar industry that experienced a phenomenal growth in the early eighties. Thereafter, growth was modest due to the advent of diseases and the rise of environment advocacy. One problem that persistently plagues the industry is the perception that shrimp culture prospered at the expense of mangrove systems.

    The need to address this problem led SEAFDEC/AQD to embark on a research program aimed at reconciling shrimp culture and mangroves issues. The Government of Japan gave importance to this program through its generous financial support. As a result, a mangrove-friendly shrimp grow-out technology was developed. Field-testing of this technology in several sites in the Philippines has proven that shrimp culture and mangroves can actually co-exist. Field-testing in the other SEAFDEC Member Countries is also ongoing.

    Based on the technology thus developed, AQD designed a training course on mangrove-friendly shrimp culture, to help disseminate the technology to the SEAFDEC Member Countries.
  • Meeting report

    Verification of semi-intensive shrimp culture techniques: Vietnam. 

    L Xan - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Vietnam has about 260,000 ha devoted for shrimp culture in early 1999. The total production was estimated at about 80,000 tons in 2000, so that productivity was about 300 kg/ha only. In 1990–1997, vast areas of mangroves were destroyed by many fish farmers for conversion into shrimp culture ponds. The Vietnam Government and local authorities have been trying to mobilize and educate farmers for them to refrain from destroying mangroves for shrimp culture; and at the same time promote increased shrimp productivity/ha in order to increase profit; and generate employment without necessarily destroying the mangroves.

    Cathai is an island district in north Vietnam with 12 communes in two islands, Catba and Cathai. Phulong Island in Catba Island, has the largest mangrove area. Before 1990, the total mangrove area of Phulong was about 2000 ha but in 1998 only about 1200 ha remained, because about 800 ha had been converted into shrimp ponds.

    However, due to lack of technology in shrimp culture especially the semi–intensive pond culture, production ranged from 200 to 300 kg/ha/crop, while in extensive ponds, production was only 50–70 kg/ha/year. Local authorities and the people of Phulong have been expecting to increase productivity from shrimp culture. Using the mangrove-friendly shrimp technology modeled by the Philippines and Thailand, the objective of the semi–intensive shrimp pond culture activity in Vietnam is to obtain 1000–1500kg/ha and to develop a model for an improved shrimp culture system.

    In the Memorandum of Agreement signed between the Ministry of Fisheries and the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center for the implementation of the Project in Vietnam, the Research Institute for Marine Products (RIMP) in Haiphong was chosen to carry out the demonstration activity focusing on the semi–intensive mangrove-friendly shrimp culture in Phulong, Cathai District, Haiphong, Vietnam. The ponds used for the Project had a total area of about 6.0 ha. Construction of the pond facilities following the Project’s scheme was completed in December 1999.
  • Meeting report

    Environment-friendly schemes in intensive shrimp farming. 

    DD Baliao - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    International environmental pressure groups call for shrimp importing countries to impose a trade embargo against farmed shrimps produced in a manner considered deleterious to the environment. In fact, Europe had banned in 2000 the importation of shrimps from some Asian countries. The subject of such protest actions included: (1) discharge of substances potentially harmful to marine organisms (chemicals used during pond preparation and therapeutants used during culture period); (2) discharge of excessive organic load during regular water change and harvests; and (3) chemical residues in shrimps harvested and marketed.

    In the Philippines, a mandate from the national government was given to SEAFDEC in 1996 to rehabilitate the shrimp industry, which almost reached the brink of virtual collapse due to diseases brought about by some environmentally destructive practices. Mangrove-friendly aquaculture or what is sometimes referred to as the environment-friendly aquaculture was launched by AQD as a five-year program starting in 1998. The focus was later changed to shrimp culture and made part of the ASEAN-SEAFDEC Fisheries Consultative Group (FCG) collaborative project with AQD as Lead Department for technology development and verification, and Thailand as Lead Country for promoting the technology within the Southeast Asian region.
  • Meeting report

    Mitigation measures of effluents from shrimp farms on mangrove and coastal resources. 

    S Tandavanitj - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    More than 80 % of shrimp production of Phuket comes from small-scale intensive farms. Most of shrimp farms use direct supply of seawater from the open sea and released effluents to canals. The effect of the unlimited effluents from shrimp farms cause deterioration in the coastal natural resources and the environment. The effluent quality and loading from marine shrimp farms have been studied in Thailand (Songsanjinda and Tunvilai, 1993; Tookwinas et al., 1994 & 1998). Macintosh and Philips (1992) reviewed the feeding habitats of shrimps and found out that 77.5 % of nitrogen and 86% of phosphorus added to the intensive pond are lost to the shrimp pond environment and would be decomposed at the bottom of the pond. After harvesting, if the effluent is directly drained out to the natural waters it would have a lot of effects on the coastal environment, such as deterioration of water quality for aquatic larva surviving near the coastal or mangrove areas. Therefore, the mitigation measures of effluent from shrimp farming on mangrove and coastal resources should be assessed, in order that the shrimp culture meets the coastal or mangrove–friendly schemes.
  • Meeting report

    Use of mangroves for aquaculture: Vietnam. 

    NTT Nhung - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Vietnam has a coastal line of 3600 km with a large wetland (tidal area) area of 600,000 ha (according to the survey statistics of the Institute of Planning and Economics under the Ministry of Fisheries), in which mangrove areas occupy a big part. Before the war, there were about 400,000 ha of mangroves in Vietnam; the largest area located in the South of Vietnam (Mekong River Delta) mainly in Tra Vinh, Soc Trang and Minh Hai. Mangrove forest serves as buffer zone or as biological filter layer. Mangrove is not only a very important ecosystem for forestry and agriculture but plays a decisive role in exploitation, aquaculture and biodiversity yield. Mangrove forests of Vietnam, especially in the South of Vietnam has been the main source of livelihood for farmers and fishermen, for a long time, which until now still occupy a large proportion of the whole country.

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