Proceedings of the second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines.

The Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, sponsored by the Department and the International Development Research Centre of Canada, brought together some 200 scientists and technologists from Canada, U.S.A., Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Past achievements, current problems and prospects of milkfish culture were discussed during the Conference held in lloilo City, Philippines on 4-8 October 1983. Eleven country and industry papers were discussed by resource persons from several Asian countries. Five special papers in various disciplines were also presented by scientists who have specialized in milkfish biology and culture. Twenty three oral and 21 poster presentations were made under five topics: artificial propagation, physiology, culture, nutrition and feed development, and pathology/ecology.

Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Pests/parasites and diseases of milkfish in the Philippines 

    CC Velasquez - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    This paper presents all known parasites of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) in the Philippines. The major parasitic groups include acanthocephalans, copepods, isopods, and heterophyid flukes. The number of parasitic species found in ponds is small compared with those harbored by the fish in its natural environment. Parasites with a direct life cycle usually survive in ponds as flagellates, ciliates, myxosporidians, coccidia, and parasitic arthropods under improper management. The methods of treatment, prevention and control of these parasites are discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish research in the Philippines 

    EO Tan, DL de Guzman, LC Darvin & MC Balgos - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Development and directions in milkfish (Chanos chanos ) research in the Philippines from 1976 to the present are reviewed and analyzed. The problems of milkfish culture are dichotomous: low productivity vis-a-vis seasons of glut and price fluctuations. To intensify fish production extensive research has been conducted on fertilizer management, reclamation of acid sulfate soils, and pond construction and engineering. Research efforts have also been heavily directed toward increasing fry production through artificial propagation, improvement of fry collecting gear, and increasing fry survival through nutrition, control of parasites, and proper handling. Research on improved icing, packaging, and processing techniques along with market analysis are necessary for maximizing economic returns.
  • Conference paper

    Diseases of milkfish 

    G Lio-Po - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Although the history of Chanos chanos culture has been quite long, reports of major epizootics have been few. Trained manpower and disease diagnostic services in most milkfish growing areas have not been readily available. Hence, earlier reports of etiologic agents of these epizootics were limited mostly to direct microscopic examination of specimens. Significant disease cases reported were attributed to bacterial, myotic, parasitic, and toxic causes. Bacterial infections, primarily due to Vibrio sp., have been frequently associated with mortality. To a lesser, extent fungal infections have also been reported. Intoxication of stock in freshwater systems by Microcystis toxins has caused massive fish kills in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. In most instances, affected fish were predisposed by environmental stress incurred in handling storage and transport. The fry and fingerling stages seemed severely affected compared with the older stages. Control of these infections must include assessment of fish husbandry practices first, before the use of chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics is considered.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish culture techniques generated and developed by the Brackishwater Aquaculture Center 

    RD Fortes - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    This paper reviews the work on milkfish (Chanos chanos ) culture techniques conducted from 1973 to 1983 by the Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, the aquaculture research arm of the College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines in the Visayas at Leganes, Iloilo, Philippines. Significant findings and innovative techniques dealing with milkfish fry collection and fingerling production such as those obtained from survival studies of fry during collection, sorting, handling acclimation storage, transport, and rearing in nursery ponds or land-based nurseries are reviewed. Fingerling production utilizing improved methods and techniques is discussed. Results of work on pond culture techniques are presented and discussed.
  • Conference paper

    The milkfish industry in Taiwan 

    CS Lee - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    This paper attempts to explain empirically the entire milkfish (Chanos chanos ) industry in Taiwan, convering 1) the gathering and marketing of milkfish fry - the procurement subsystem; 2) the production of milkfish fingerlings for the baitfish industry; 3) the production of market-size milkfish - the transformation subsystem; and 4) the marketing of market-size milkfish - the delivery subsystem. A constant elasticity of substitution production function is used to estimate the input-output relationship for baitfish and market-size production systems, with all inputs classified into labor and capital. An important finding is that the elasticity of substitution between labor and capital exceeds unity, indicating rather easy substitution between the two inputs in the milkfish industry in Taiwan. The area for aquaculture has expanded rapidly during the past two decades, but the milkfish production area has remained at 15,000 ha and yields have increased slowly compared with those of other cultured species.
  • Conference paper

    The milkfish industry in the Philippines 

    ED Samson - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Milkfish (Chanos chanos ) is the most commercially important fish species in the Philippines. Milkfish production from the marine fisheries and aquaculture sectors has increased at an average rate of 22%. In 1981, production was valued at 1.9 billion Philippine dollars (212,000 t), representing 14% of total fish production value. About 73% of milkfish production came from brackishwater ponds, while the rest was contributed by fishpens (26.3%) and marine fisheries (0.5%). The national yield average was 870 kg/ha per year. Local marketing is handled by brokers, who distribute the fish to wholesalers, cooperatives, retailers, and consumers. Exports experienced a more than 600% increase from 1977 to 1980 and a slight decrease in 1981. Despite inherent problems of the industry include, the potential for further growth of the industry is strong in view of recent research on intensive farming, induced spawning, rearing in controlled conditions, and polyculture techniques. The government is providing support through the establishment of infrastructure facilities, strengthening of extension and training, provision of credit, and development of efficient marketing.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish aquaculture in Sri Lanka 

    K Thayaparan & RD Chakrabarty - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Milkfish (Chanos chanos ) fry and fingerlings are abundant in coastal and brackishwater areas in Sri Lanka, yet the industry remains in a stage of underdevelopment. The main seed collection centers are Mannar and Kalpitiya in the northwest and the season is from March to June. The annual fry production potential of the Mannar tidal flats is estimated to be about 4 million. The brackishwater aquaculture potential of Sri Lanka is estimated to be about 120,000 ha. In the past, returns from fry collected from tidal pools and stocked into perennial tanks have been very poor. The recently initiated seed resources survey and investigations into scientific collection, transport, and culture including pen culture should help develop farming of milkfish in Sri Lanka. Polyculture of the species with other fish and shrimp and its culture in salterns are being attempted.
  • Conference paper

    Economic and technological aspects of the Indonesian milkfish industry 

    KC Chong, AT Poernomo & F Kasryno - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    A broad overview is presented of the economic and technological aspects of Indonesian milkfish (Chanos chanos ) aquaculture covering information on the economic importance of milkfish, fry capture and distribution, milkfish grow-out system, economics of production, and milkfish marketing and distribution. In Indonesia, milkfish is regarded as a high value food item. Because of various constraints to high milkfish yield, Indonesian milkfish ponds are still grossly underutilized. As a consequence, these constraints and the resulting present low per hectare yield level would not be able to support the government s drive toward self-sufficiency in fish in the near future. Understanding socioeconomics of milkfish production such as the attitudes of producers toward present low yield and the reasons why they are not using more inputs is of importance. Government assistance should not be narrowly focused on production alone but should also encompass organized marketing and distribution involving as much as possible the private sector in moving the fish, and continuous follow-up monitor progress of government projects.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Advances in milkfish biology and culture: proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines 

    JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.) - 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Abstracts of the 17 papers presented at the conference are cited individually in this issue.
  • Conference paper

    Southeast Asian milkfish culture: Economic status and prospects 

    IR Smith & KC Chong - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Historically, milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) has been the premier aquaculture product in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. However, there are significant differences in the industry's performance among and within these places, especially in terms of yield. These differences can be explained by different factor (land, labor, capital) endowments and by the fact that producers have generally been responsive to these conditions. In Taiwan and the Philippines, milkfish production is becoming less profitable over time. In both places, brackishwater pond producers of milkfish are caught in a cost-price squeeze as input costs have increased more rapidly than market prices. Indonesian producers also face market constraints because high regional transport costs often isolate them from major market centers. In response to declining profitability of milkfish, producers have been changing their production techniques and shifting to the culture of other species such as tilapia that currently have greater domestic or export market potential. Although total milkfish production continues to increase, in the Philippines and Indonesia at least, milkfish's traditional share of total aquaculture production in all these places has declined quite dramatically over the last 10 years, and this trend is likely to continue.
  • Conference paper

    Artificial propagation of milkfish: Present status and problems 

    TJ Lam - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Milkfish (Chanos chanos ) has been extensively cultured in Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. At present, the only source of fry for fish farmers is the coastal waters during the spawning season. The supply of fry is therefore often irregular and inadequate. Since the early 1970s attempts have been made to breed milkfish in captivity, particularly in Hawaii, Taiwan, and the Philippines. This paper reviews the progress problems and suggested future research direction of the following areas: induction of ovulation/spawning, sperm preservation, larval rearing, and induction of gonadal maturation.
  • Conference paper

    Acid sulfate soils and their management for brackishwater fishponds 

    VP Singh & AT Poernomo - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    The major problems of fishponds build on acid sulfate soils are low pH; ionic imbalance and toxic levels of aluminum, iron, and sulfate; deficiency of phosphorus and poor response to fertilizer application; slow and poor growth of fish food organisms and fish; erosion of dikes; and in some cases fish kills. For economic operations and to remedy the problems of poor algal growth, fish kills and low yields, the acid in the pond bottom and dikes has to be neutralized or removed. A repeated sequence of drying, tilling, and flushing with seawater is a cheap, fast, and effective reclamation method that can be done in one dry season. Following this method, the dry soil pH improved; exchangeable aluminum, pyritic iron, active iron, active manganese, and sulfate decreased; and available phorphorus improved. The values for alkalinity, phosphate, aluminum, iron, and sulfate in the pond water improved greatly. Fish production was about three-fold more in reclaimed ponds (375-510 kg/ha) compared with the control ponds (50-173 kg/ha).
  • Conference paper

    The ecological aspects of milkfish fry occurrence, particularly in the Philippines 

    S Kumagai - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    Aspects of the time, place, and mechanism of occurrence of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) fry, defined as the postlarvae 10-17 mm in total length and 3 weeks of age are considered. Fry occurrence shows seasonal patterns that differ by latitude. In the Philippines (15-21 degree N), fry appear earlier in the south (December-January) and later in the north (March-April); they disappear earlier in the north (July-August) than in the south (December-January). Greater numbers of fry occur in shore waters during the full moon and new moon periods, largely as a consequence of the greater spawning activity during the quarter moon periods. Fry catch by various active and passive filtering gear is greater at floods and high tide than at low and ebb tide. Milkfish fry occur in and are collected mostly from sandy beaches, particularly the surf zone and in and around river mouths. They appear to be distributed mostly near the surface, with greater numbers nearer shore. It appears that larvae smaller than 9-10 mm are distributed in midwaters, but once they reach this size they come up and are carried inshore by tidal and wind-driven currents.
  • Conference paper

    The sense organs and behaviors of milkfish fry in relation to collection techniques 

    G Kawamura - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    This paper describes the sense organs and some of the behavioral characteristics of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) fry, based on studies conducted at the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Philippines and at Kagoshima University, Japan in 1982. Based on the experimental results obtained and the observations made in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Taiwan, existing fry collection techniques such as the employment of fish lamps and scare lines are considered effective and rational. Several recommendations are made for improvements of the collection gear and for research on fry behavior.
  • Conference paper

    Gonadal development and induced breeding of captive milkfish in Taiwan 

    IC Liao & TI Chen - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    The induced breeding of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) has been attempted by many institutes in the Philippines, Taiwan, Tahiti, Indonesia, and Hawaii. So far, a few successful trials have been achieved only in the Philippines and Taiwan, although different sources of spawners were used. In Taiwan the spawners used were reared from fry to sexual maturity in ponds and concrete tanks. This paper summarizes the gonadal development of captive milkfish at various stages of sexual maturation investigated from 1975 to 1980 and describes three successful trials of induced breeding in 1979, 1982, and 1983 in Taiwan. Finally, the problems that need further study are discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish nursery pond and pen culture in the Indo-Pacific region 

    DD Baliao - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    In culturing milkfish (Chanos chanos ) to marketable size, the fry (total length = 12-15 mm) are usually reared first in nursery ponds or pens (hapa nets) until they become fingerlings (total length = 2 cm or more). The fingerlings are then transferred to the grow-out ponds or pens where they are reared to marketable size. In some countries like the Philippines, fingerling production has become an industry by itself. This paper reviews the state of the art and constraints to and suggests future research directions for milkfish fingerling production in nursery ponds and pens.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish nutrition 

    LV Benitez - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    This paper reviews major contributions in the field of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) nutrition since the First International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference in 1976. Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the digestion, foods, and feeding behavior of milkfish, which in its natural habitat apparently feeds on planktonic microorganisms and is most frequently designated as a microphagons planktivore. Vision seems to be the most important sensory mechanism for feeding in fry as well as in juvenilles and larger milkfish. There is very scant information on nutrient requirements and other important aspects of milkfish nutrition. A preliminary study on protein requirement showed that a dietary level of 40% protein was required by fry. Other studies showed that fry responded positively and were easily trained to accept artificial diets. The "deep water method" of growing milkfish practised in Taiwan demonstrated that, with the use of formulated diets, productivity in milkfish aquaculture could be increased three-fold over traditional culture methods, which rely on natural food bases.
  • Conference paper

    Collection, storage, transport, and acclimation of milkfish fry and fingerlings 

    AC Villaluz - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
    The present methods of collecting fry and fingerlings involve filtration by mobile or stationary devices. The bottom topography of the fry ground, wind direction, and tidal fluctuations are the most important considerations in the design and construction of fry and fingerling catching gear. The behavior of young milkfish (Chanos chanos ) in the different environments where they are exploited determines the catching methods to be employed. Collection, handling, storage, and transport activities expose the fish to undue stress, which contributes to poor survival. The simple method of lowering the salinity of the water medium considerably reduces mortality. Prior acclimation history has significant effects on subsequent survival and adaptation. Although it appears that milkfish fry are more hardy than the fingerlings, both have the same capability for resisting subsequent environmental stress provided sufficient time is given for the fish to recover from previous stress.