Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Mud crab fattening project of KAMAMANA in Del Carmen, Siargao Island 

    AE Sulima - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Kaanib ng mga Mangingisda at Magsasaka ng Numancia Aqua-Agrikultura (KAMAMANA), established in Del Carmen, Siargao Island in 2011 is a People's Organization active in promoting the advocacy in 1) protecting the environment and natural resources, 2) providing services for the family welfare, and 3) managing sustainable livelihood programs and community development. One of the major livelihood programs presently being implemented by KAMAMANA is the fattening of mud crab (mangrove crab), Scylla serrata, in plastic containers set up in a mangrove area. Tenurial rights to manage a 2-hectare mangrove area for 25 years was granted to KAMAMANA by the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources.

    Crabs obtained from the mangrove areas of Del Carmen and nearby municipalities are purchased and stocked in plastic containers. The crabs are fed trash fish and mollusks once every afternoon to satiation until they are fattened, usually for 1-2 weeks. The major problem encountered is mortality after molting. Four KAMAMANA members are involved in the crab fattening. When mortalities occur, the dead crabs are usually charged to members assigned in the operation. The fattened crabs are sold to local restaurants, hotels, resorts and walk-in buyers or brought to traders in Surigao City. The net income is divided into the following: members involved in the culture (50%), treasurer (10%), business manager (15%), organizational share (5%), savings (5%) and trust fund (15%).
  • Conference paper

    Polyculture of mud crab in Region 3 

    M Bonifacio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The polyculture of mud crab with one to three other species (milkfish (Chanos chanos), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and shrimp or sugpo (Penaeus monodon)) is a common practice in Region 3. Pond preparation is given importance prior to stocking of various species. Removal of sludge in the pond and application of probiotics are included in the standard pond preparation. The size and stocking densities of each species vary depending on the season. The volume of water to be replaced is based on the transparency of the water.

    The various species are fed natural food grown in the pond in addition to mollusks and low value fish given specifically for mud crab and shrimp. When pond water becomes transparent (indicating the decrease in phytoplankton density), the water is agitated using a small boat. If water continues to be transparent, fertilizers are applied to enhance growth of natural food. The pond water and animals are closely monitored to prevent diseases. Some of the early signs of occurrence of disease include the presence of bubbles on the water surface, and presence of weak shrimp on the feeding trays and along the dikes. The presence of weak shrimp and crab on the pond bottom and continuous swimming of these animals from night to dawn indicate poor pond water quality which can be remedied by circulating and flushing of the pond water every other day.
  • Conference paper

    Growth, survival, proximate and fatty acid composition of sandworm Perinereis quatrefagesi (Grube, 1878) fed variable feed types 

    JB Biñas, VR Alava & WL Campos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Sandworm Perinereis quatrefagesi has been used as feed for crustacean broodstock due to its reproductive-enhancing properties particularly protein and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Juvenile sandworms collected along the coast of Guimbal, Iloilo were reared in tanks and fed three nutritionally variable feed types: fish fecal waste, fish meal and rice bran. After 56 days, feeds affected (p<0.05) sandworm growth and crude fat contents but not (p<0.05) survival and crude protein levels. Survival rates were 86~c3 to 89~c5% while crude protein levels were 57.0 ~c 2.5 to 68.0 ~c 5.3 g 100 g-1 dry weight. High crude protein fish meal promoted better (p<0.05) growth (2.2~c0.4% day-1) than fish feces (1.2~c0.3% day-1) and rice bran (1.1~c0.3 % day-1). However, crude fat content of sandworm was higher (p<0.05) in rice bran (18.9~c1.6 g 100 g-1) than in fecal waste (13.6~c2.9 g 100 g-1) and fish meal (10.5~c3.1 g 100 g-1) treatments. Levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as 20:4 n-6, 22:6 n-3 and 20:5 n-3 did not differ significantly (p>0.05) at 0.41~c0.21 to 0.89~c0.51 g 100 g-1, 0.21~c0.24 to 0.43~c0.22 g 100 g-1 and 0.57~c0.46 to 0.88~c0.31 g 100 g-1, respectively.

    The study demonstrated that P. quatrefagesi: (1) can survive well in nutritionally variable feed types although it grows better in high protein diet; (2) crude protein levels were high regardless of feed types; and (3) crude fat content was high in high fat diet but n-3 and n-6 HUFAs were not significantly different regardless of feed types.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata fed diets supplemented with trytophan at two stocking densities 

    VR Alava, MA Lucero, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Cannibalism has been recognized as one of the major problems in crab culture. The use of dietary tryptophan (TRP) that has been reported to reduce cannibalism in crabs under laboratory conditions was verified in pond nursery culture at two stocking densities. The first phase used hatchery-produced early crab instar. After 3-4 weeks, survivors were sorted and the small size crabs were further reared in the second phase. Crabs were stocked in 12-m2 net cages installed in brackishwater pond and fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. The feeding scheme used was a combination of mussel meat (M) and formulated diet (FD) at 30:70 ratio. The original FD contained 45% crude protein (used in Experiment 1, 2 and 3) that was lowered to 40% crude protein in the new basal diet used in the succeeding experiment. The two TRP-supplemented diets had 0.5% and 0.7% TRP levels. Results showed that the TRP-supplemented feeds did not give consistent results in terms of growth and feed conversion ratio, indicating that the original basal diet (0.4% TRP and 45% crude protein) or the new basal diet (0.4% TRP and 40% crude protein) were sufficient to be used together with mussel meat as feed for crab juveniles. Higher survival rates were obtained at 50 m-2 (phase 1) and 10 m-2 (phase 2) than at 30 m-2 and 5 m-2 stocking density, respectively. All trial runs produced positive returns on investment.
  • Conference paper

    Evaluation of the bioremediation capacity of the polychaete, Marphysa mossambica (Peters, 1854) in pond sediments 

    MAE Mandario, VR Alava & NC Anasco - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Marphysa mossambica is commonly found in brackishwater ponds and is an important natural food for cultured stocks particularly mud crabs. To understand the burrowing activity of polychaete, survival and capacity to bioremediate pond sediments, tank experiments were conducted. In a completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment, small (1-month old, 28 mg) and large (3-month old, 139 mg) hatchery-bred M. mossambica were reared in two sediment types for 30 days without feeding. Aeration was supplied and water change was done every other day. Polychaete-free sediments served as control. Sediments obtained from SEAFDEC/AQD Dumangas Brackishwater Station were sun-dried, ground and passed through 1-mm sieve.

    Initial sediment A had 1.86% organic matter, 1,171 ppm available sulfur (SO42-), 194.23 ppm iron (Fe) and 7.86 pH while initial sediment B contained higher organic matter (4.1%), available sulfur (2,456.67 ppm), similar iron level (199.34 ppm) and was more acidic (4.91 pH). In sediment A, small and large polychaetes did not differ (p>0.05) with the control in reducing organic matter but both significantly reduced (p<0.05) available sulfur (77-73%) and iron (69-71%). However, only the large polychaetes increased the pH (p< 0.05, 2.67%). In sediment B, only the large polychaetes reduced (p<0.05) organic matter (27%) but both small and large polychaetes significantly reduced (p<0.05) available sulfur (64-70%) and iron (70-74%). The pH increase was similar to control (17-24%). Large polychaetes had higher survival (93%, p<0.05) than small polychaetes (60%) in sediment B but not different (p>0.05) in sediment A (97%, 87%). The study demonstrated the bioremediation capacity of M. mossambica particularly in reducing available sulfur and iron in sediments.
  • Conference paper

    Adoption of modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City, Pangasinan 

    RB Cerezo & JF Rebugio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Pangasinan’s vast fishpond and mangrove areas have not been fully tapped for mud crab (Scylla serrata) production. The main reason identified for this is the limited supply of crab seedstock. At present, there is no reliable source of seedstock in Pangasinan. The total requirement of Pangasinan for crab seedstock is estimated at 8.89 million based on the total area (ha) devoted to mud crab polyculture in the province. Mud crab growers in Pangasinan procure wild juvenile crabs from Cagayan, Bicol and Visayas but the volume is limited. Thus, an adoption of a modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City would be helpful. A model mud crab hatchery will be constructed to enable the local government unit (LGU) of Alaminos City to produce seedstock in commercial quantity to boost the production in Pangasinan and nearby provinces. The hatchery aims to produce 480,000 juvenile crabs per year to supply the nursery and grow-out ponds. Likewise, the hatchery technology will promote the mud crab hatchery and nursery technologies in the city of Pangasinan and coastal towns (Infanta, Dasol, Burgos, Agno, Bolinao, Anda, Bani, Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Binmaley, Dagupan City and San Fabian), and nearby provinces of La Union, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte and Zambales.
  • Conference paper

    Private sectors perspectives: Problems and constraints of the mud crab grow-out industry 

    HR Hocson - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab aquaculture industry in the province of Capiz received much attention after production constraints due to diseases were encountered by the prawn industry. Fishpond operators sought for an alternative high value species and realized the potential of the king crab, Scylla serrata. This species is not native to Capiz and has to be sourced from other parts of the country, particularly from the Bicol region and Samar. The techniques for grow-out culture were gradually refined as farmers learned from the experiences of others. Presently, mud crab aquaculture is being done by private sectors based more on art. However, mud crab culture requires a lot of science to make the production consistent and sustainable. The practices of farmers and the problems they have encountered are presented together with the overall industry concerns.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Philippines: In the forefront of the mud crab industry: Proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress 

    ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.) - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Conference paper

    Mangroves as mud crab habitats 

    JH Primavera - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper reports the use of mangroves by Scylla species both as wild and culture habitats. Based on published literature, natural mangrove crab populations are described in terms of population density, dispersal and movement within and outside mangroves, crab burrows and associated mangrove species. Strategies for Scylla conservation depend on the kind of mangrove habitat - (mangrove) restoration for open fringing mangroves where crab recruitment and abundance are determined by habitat availability vs stock enhancement in closed basin mangroves with restricted recruitment and limited movement of crabs.

    Mangrove crabs are also reared in monoculture in mangrove cages and pens, or in polyculture with milkfish in extensive ponds (where mangroves used to thrive). The paper describes a SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department study to evaluate the effects of mud crab net pen systems on mangrove macroflora, and the replacement of dietary trash fish with low-cost pellets. Results showed that incomplete, low-cost pellets can replace fish biomass requirement in mud crab diets, but that crab presence resulted in fewer mangrove seedlings and saplings. Economic analysis showed the viability of crab culture in mangrove pens using a combination of fish biomass and pellets to reduce the requirement for (low-value) fish, which is a food item of poor coastal communities.
  • Conference paper

    Diseases affecting wild and farmed mud crab in the Philippines 

    EA Tendencia & MVC Cabilitasan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mortalities due to cannibalism and diseases have been reported as major problems in the grow-out phase of mud crab production. This study aimed to identify and describe diseases affecting farmed and wild mud crab (mangrove crab) including predisposing, risk and protective factors, and possible prevention and control measures. A total of 767 wild and farmed mud crab samples were collected. External examination showed abnormalities such as short abdominal flap, discoloration of the abdominal region, darker carapace, lesions on carapace, claws and legs, and presence of epibionts like algae and the barnacles Balanus sp. on the carapace. Internally, necrotic, black and brown gills, and discolored gonads were observed. Stalked barnacles, Octolasmis spp., were observed in the gills. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was detected in 14 samples sourced from farms and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in 2 wild samples. WSSV was implicated in mortality cases. Low temperature and presence of WSSV positive shrimp were identified as risk factors for WSSV infection or outbreak. Pathogenicity tests for some isolated bacteria suggested that these may cause mortality in mud crab under stressful conditions. To prevent mortality due to WSSV infection, it is recommended to avoid polyculture of mud crab with shrimp and/or other crustaceans.
  • Conference paper

    Capacity building initiatives of Winrock International on mud crab culture in the Caraga Region 

    J Nobillos, D Gudahl & J Orprecio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper presents the output of the capacity building initiatives of Winrock International on Mud crab culture in the Caraga Region, Philippines. The capacity building seminar included lectures on the mud crab biology, pond preparation, nursery and grow-out culture, fattening, and soft-shell crab farming. Identification of the various crab body parts, actual pond preparation, nursery and grow-out culture of crab were demonstrated after the series of lectures.
  • Conference paper

    Mud crab production trials at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University, New Washington, Aklan 

    YH Primavera-Tirol, R de la Cruz & EB Pastrana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Two hatchery and nursery trials have been conducted at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University (ASU) for the Multi-species Hatchery and Fishfarm Project from August to September 2014 and April to May 2015, in collaboration with the Aquaculture Department (AQD), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program of the PCAARRD-DOST.

    Two ASU staff underwent training on Mud Crab Hatchery, Nursery and Grow-out Operations at SEAFDEC/AQD from September to October 2013. This was followed by SEAFDEC/AQD&rsquo;s provision of technical assistance during the actual hatchery and nursery operations using Scylla serrata at ASU. Survival rates of 3% and of 66-76% were recorded in the hatchery and nursery phases, respectively. The natural food consisting of rotifer and Artemia, and commercial formulated diet were fed to S. serrata larvae (zoea to megalopa). Juvenile crabs were fed formulated feeds and molluscs. Water temperature ranged from 27 to 30°C and salinity from 29 to 33 ppt in the hatchery. Initial results and insights are discussed and evaluated as guide for future hatchery and nursery protocols.
  • Conference paper

    Effect of feed binder on water stability and digestibility of formulated feed for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

    MR Catacutan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The binding capacity of six natural and eight synthetic feed binders were tested in a basal diet formulated for the mud crab. Incorporation levels of natural binders ranged from 1 to 25% while those of synthetic binders ranged from 0.1 to 5% and these were tested for pellet stability in seawater by a) 10-min immersion, and b) at different time intervals. Pellets with synthetic binders were more water-stable than pellets with natural binders. Three synthetic binders and natural binders (glutinous rice starch and carrageenan + CMC) showed best results. The Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of crude protein (ADCCP) and crude fat (ADCCFt) of the basal diet were determined when selected feed binders were included in the formulation. These were determined by using an inert indicator, chromic oxide. Results showed that the ADCCP and ADCCFt of the basal diet were not similar when different binders were used, and these differences ranged from 3 to 7%. Carrageenan combined with a synthetic binder improved ADCCP and CDCCFt values.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata using different feeding rates 

    VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effect of different feeding rates on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 (3-week each) nursery culture of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was determined. Minced mussel meat and formulated diet (at a ratio of 30:70) were fed to crabs. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery earthen pond at stocking densities of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630h h. In Phase 1, feed conversion ratio (FCR) at a feeding rate of 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire three weeks was the lowest (p<0.05) while survival, body weight (BW), carapace width (CW) and carapace length (CL) were not different (p>0.05) among crabs given different feeding rates. For Phase 2, the feeding rate of 40-30-20% of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) resulted in lowest (p<0.05) FCR that was not significantly different from FCRs of crabs fed 50-40-30% and 60-50-40% of BW. Crab BW, CW and CL were not different (p>0.05) among feeding rate treatments. Profitability was better when feeding rate used was 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire Phase 1 or 100-50-40% of crab biomass day-1 (for week 1-2-3). A feeding rate of 50-40-30 % of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) was more profitable in Phase 2.
  • Conference paper

    Strategies to reduce disease incidence in mud crab culture 

    EC Amar, MD Somera, SB Madero, EA Tendencia & JP Faisan Jr. - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab hatchery suffers from low survival due to susceptibility to bacterial infection in the early larval stages among many causes. Despite food safety issues, antibiotics continue to be used in the absence of effective alternatives. In this study, screening of plant extracts was conducted to determine their suitability as antimicrobial agents against pathogens causing low survival in the hatchery. In addition, potential probionts were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of mud crab, and water and sediments of mud crab grow-out ponds.

    Crude ethanolic extracts from various terrestrial and mangrove trees were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity and toxicity to mud crab zoea and megalopa. In addition, the in vivo antimicrobial efficacies of the selected extracts were tested by oral administration followed by experimental challenge with Vibrio harveryi. On the other hand, the putative probionts, were tested for pathogenicity against mud crab zoea and megalopa and quorum sensing inhibition activity against V. harveyi. Finally the extracts and probionts were tested for their efficacy in simulated hatchery and grow-out trials.

    Results showed that extracts of Terminalia cattapa and the potential probiont Bacillus subtilis G100R11 showed antimicrobial and probiotic activity in in vitro and in vivo tests. In simulated hatchery trials, T. cattapa administration successfully produced crab instar with a survival of 1.3-1.8% in trials 1 and 2 comparable to antibiotic control. B. subtilis produced crab instar with survival of 0.8-1.0% in trials 1 and 2, better than the commercial probiotic with 0-0.13% survival. Using T. cattapa and B. subtilis, survival was above 30% until zoea 5 but suddenly dropped below 5% during metamorphosis to megalopa where high incidence of incomplete molting was observed. If difficulty affecting the molting process is addressed, high survival from zoea to megalopa and crab instar will be achievable.
  • Conference paper

    Pilot scale production of pellets suitable for mud crab Scylla serrata 

    RM Coloso, MR Catacutan, JP Peralta, JG Genodepa, K Duno & R Gardoce - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Studies were conducted towards the pilot scale production of stable and nutritionally adequate pellets suitable for mud crab Scylla serrata to help in efforts to increase mud crab production in the Philippines. Preliminary studies showed that mud crabs preferred pellets which were spherical or cylindrical and contained marine based attractants. Two practical diets were formulated and prepared in the Pilot Feed Mill of SEAFDEC/AQD. The extruded diets, along with a commercial mud crab grow-out diet, were subjected to proximate and Ca/P analyses as well as cholesterol analysis and water stability tests. The diets were fed to crabs in a controlled laboratory experiment using fiberglass tanks with flow-through, aerated seawater, and monitored from initial molt (M0) up to the second molt (M2). Tests revealed that the crabs fed Diet 1 (CP 48.28 %, CF 7.74 %, Ca 5.23%, P 12.93 %, cholesterol 0.173 %) showed the highest growth and better survival than those fed Diet 2 or commercial diet. Crabs fed Diet 1 took a shorter time to attain two molt cycles from M0. Survival was 70% after M2. Diet 1 was water stable within two hours. Abnormalities were observed including absent swimming legs or chelae, exposed gills, sores on exoskeleton, incomplete molting, or soft exoskeleton, but none that could be directly attributed to a specific treatment. Incomplete molting and slow hardening of the exoskeleton in crabs that accounted for the mortalities could be due to the low cholesterol levels in the diets especially in the commercial diet which had the lowest cholesterol level. Cholesterol supplementation of the artificial diet would be needed to improve molting success and survival of mud crabs in grow-out culture. The results of these experiments will be used to formulate a cost-effective grow-out diet for mud crab (supported by DOST-PCAARRD Grant in Aid).
  • Conference paper

    Development of immunostimulant for mud crab, Scylla serrata 

    RF Traifalgar - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Non-specific immune activitation is considered a potential prophylactic approach in the prevention of disease outbreaks in crustacean aquaculture. The present investigation evaluates the dietary supplementation of bacterial and algal derived immunostimulants including peptidoglycan, ergosan, mannan oligosaccharide and acidic polysaccharides from Ulva, Sargassum and Padina to enhance the immunological responses and resistance of Scylla serrata juveniles against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Each of the test immunostimulant was optimized for dose and frequency of administration.

    Results showed significant enhancement of shrimp survival against WSSV infection if Mannan oligosaccharide is supplemented at 2000 mg kg-1 diet applied every 3 days. Optimum dose and frequency of application for peptidoglycan was determined as 1000 mg kg-1 diet applied every 3 days while a dose of 2000 mg kg-1 diet applied every 3 days was found optimum for ergosan. Enhancement of survival was also observed in crabs given the acidic polysaccharide extracts from seaweeds. Better survival was observed in the treatment receiving Ulva at 1000 mg kg-1 applied every 3 days. Similar dose and frequency were also observed to enhance the resistance of the juvenile crabs against WSSV when maintained with diets supplemented with Padina and Sargassum acidic polysaccharides. The high survival in these treatments is associated with the prominent enhancement of immunological responses including phenol oxidase activity, respiratory burst and total hemocyte counts. At optimum dosage and application frequency, these immunostimulants are observed to improve overall growth performance of the juvenile crab. These results suggest that dietary supplementation of peptidoglycan, ergosan mannan oligosaccharide, and acidic polysaccharides from Ulva, Sargassum and Padina at a dose described above can be used to boost the immunological response and enhance the resistance of S. serrata juveniles against WSSV infection.
  • Conference paper

    Defects in the handling, storage and transport of mud crab 

    JP Peralta & DS Cheung - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Consumers prefer to buy live mud crabs (Scylla). Moribund and dead crabs have very low market value. Immediately after harvest, the crabs are tied to render their claws immobile. The time between harvest and arrival of crabs at the final destination is 3-5 days. During the holding and transport period, the crabs are no longer fed and are sometimes subjected to stressful conditions (e.g. high temperature) which may result to weight loss, muscle emaciation and other undesirable conditions of the crabs, and mortality. Likewise, ammoniacal odor (strong urine-like smell) that affects flavor is sometimes observed. Crabs with emaciated muscle and undesirable odor are considered rejects.

    This paper presents the initial results of the project on the Improvement in the Handling, Storage and Transport of Mud Crabs under Sub-program C entitled Improvement of Feeds and Stock Management Practices in Mud Crab Grow-out Culture under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program.
  • Conference paper

    Overview of the mud crab industry in the Philippines 

    ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines and the country is the second top producer in the world. Except for Scylla paramamosain, the three other species, S. serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are commonly found in the country, but S. serrata is the preferred species for farming. Crab seeds for farming are mainly from the wild and in recent years, a small percentage from the hatchery. Due to the apparent decline of the wild crab stocks, provincial and municipal ordinances have been issued by a number of Local Government Units (LGUs) along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) to conserve and manage the remaining resources. From the hatchery, megalopa or crab instars are grown in net cages installed in the nursery pond. Mud crab farming engages mostly in long-term grow-out culture of juvenile crabs to market size for 3-5 months, short-term fattening of lean crabs for 15-45 days, and recently, soft-shell crab production. Polyculture of juvenile crabs to market size with one to three other commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is usually practiced. Mud crabs for soft-shell crab production are mainly from the wild, while SEAFDEC/AQD demonstrates the use of hatchery-produced juvenile mud crabs as seedstock.

    Refinement is continuously being done to improve the economic viability of producing crabs, although basic technologies have been developed for all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery, grow-out, fattening and soft shell crab production). The major issues facing the industry are the lack of seedstock, difficulty of zoea 5 to molt to megalopa stage, cannibalism particularly at the nursery phase, species identification at the juvenile stage, use of fish as aquafeed, diseases, effects of climate change and quality of crabs at postharvest. In 2012, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) started funding projects under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP) to address these issues. The major aim of the Program was to improve the production, profitability and sustainability of crab farming. SEAFDEC/AQD leads in capacity building with focus on the sustainability of the mud crab industry. Various collaborations and research studies on mud crab culture enabled SEAFDEC/AQD to package mud crab technologies, conduct local and international training courses and on-site technology demonstrations, and publish extension manuals and scientific publications since the mid1990s. Research and Development activities have been translated into improved production. With the recent developments and refinements of technologies, it is expected that the Philippines will increase its production by 25-50% in the next 5 years.
  • Conference paper

    Unified provincial fisheries law enforcement of ordinance of Camarines Norte focusing on mud crab 

    EA Estanislao - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Due to overfishing and widespread coastal habitat degradation, the Province of Camarines Norte passed a provincial fisheries law enforcement known as the Unified Provincial Fisheries Law Enforcement Ordinance of Camarines Norte (UPFLEON) (P.O. 50-10). Given emphasis in the paper is the banning in the collection and possession of less than 1.0 cm juvenile crabs.

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