Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Mud crab fattening project of KAMAMANA in Del Carmen, Siargao Island 

    AE Sulima - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Kaanib ng mga Mangingisda at Magsasaka ng Numancia Aqua-Agrikultura (KAMAMANA), established in Del Carmen, Siargao Island in 2011 is a People's Organization active in promoting the advocacy in 1) protecting the environment and natural resources, 2) providing services for the family welfare, and 3) managing sustainable livelihood programs and community development. One of the major livelihood programs presently being implemented by KAMAMANA is the fattening of mud crab (mangrove crab), Scylla serrata, in plastic containers set up in a mangrove area. Tenurial rights to manage a 2-hectare mangrove area for 25 years was granted to KAMAMANA by the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources.

    Crabs obtained from the mangrove areas of Del Carmen and nearby municipalities are purchased and stocked in plastic containers. The crabs are fed trash fish and mollusks once every afternoon to satiation until they are fattened, usually for 1-2 weeks. The major problem encountered is mortality after molting. Four KAMAMANA members are involved in the crab fattening. When mortalities occur, the dead crabs are usually charged to members assigned in the operation. The fattened crabs are sold to local restaurants, hotels, resorts and walk-in buyers or brought to traders in Surigao City. The net income is divided into the following: members involved in the culture (50%), treasurer (10%), business manager (15%), organizational share (5%), savings (5%) and trust fund (15%).
  • Conference paper

    Polyculture of mud crab in Region 3 

    M Bonifacio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The polyculture of mud crab with one to three other species (milkfish (Chanos chanos), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and shrimp or sugpo (Penaeus monodon)) is a common practice in Region 3. Pond preparation is given importance prior to stocking of various species. Removal of sludge in the pond and application of probiotics are included in the standard pond preparation. The size and stocking densities of each species vary depending on the season. The volume of water to be replaced is based on the transparency of the water.

    The various species are fed natural food grown in the pond in addition to mollusks and low value fish given specifically for mud crab and shrimp. When pond water becomes transparent (indicating the decrease in phytoplankton density), the water is agitated using a small boat. If water continues to be transparent, fertilizers are applied to enhance growth of natural food. The pond water and animals are closely monitored to prevent diseases. Some of the early signs of occurrence of disease include the presence of bubbles on the water surface, and presence of weak shrimp on the feeding trays and along the dikes. The presence of weak shrimp and crab on the pond bottom and continuous swimming of these animals from night to dawn indicate poor pond water quality which can be remedied by circulating and flushing of the pond water every other day.
  • Conference paper

    Biological evaluation of existing feed formulations for the grow-out culture of the mud crab, Scylla serrata 

    MR Catacutan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This study was conducted to identify a formulated pelleted feed for the grow-out culture of the mud crab. A commercial crab feed (CCF) was evaluated together with fish by-catch (FBC) and three test diets (formulated and pelleted) of similar dietary energy (1723 MJ/Kg diet) based on published works. The test diets contained 48% (D-1), 43% (D-2), and 38% (D-3) crude protein (CP), respectively. All the five dietary treatments were fed to crablets (5 to 6 g body weight) that were individually stocked in 60-L tanks. Each dietary treatment was fed to six crabs. Crustaceans grow by molting which is not simultaneous, hence, each crab was monitored daily. After the third molt (M3) survival rates in D-1, D-2 and D-3 ranged from 33%-66% compared with only 16% in FBC, and 0% in CCF where no crab survived to molt for the second time (M2). Nutrients in FBC may not be sufficient to sustain growth and survival, while water stable CCF may lack a feed attractant. Diets D-1, D-2, and D-3 were evaluated in another feeding experiment to identify the basal diet for the crab. All crabs molted until M3 and no significant differences were noted on growth performance between treatments. However, D-1 (48% CP) was identified as the basal diet due to better numerical values observed in terms of feed conversion ratios and specific growth rates.
  • Conference paper

    Trading of juvenile crabs and grow-out culture in Capiz 

    GJ Panaguiton - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The article presents the trade of juvenile crabs in the Province of Capiz, Philippines. Moreover grow-out culture was also presented. Likewise, common problems encountered in the trade, and culture of the crabs was discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Management strategies for grow-out culture of mud crab 

    JG Genodepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    There is an increasing interest in mud crab farming because of the growing demand for mud crab in domestic and international markets. Different methods for rearing crabs in ponds, pens and cages have evolved through several years of research and experiences of farmers. Mud crabs are cultured in brackishwater earthen ponds and pens in mangroves. Fattening of lean crabs is also integrated with the grow-out culture system. Cannibalism is one of the major factors affecting the survival of crabs in growout ponds and pens. Hence, various strategies are recommended to reduce cannibalism such as stocking density of less than 2,000 crabs ha-1, provision of suitable shelters, sufficient quantity of natural food and formulated feeds that are evenly distributed in the pond or pen. Feeding rate used in the pen is adjusted to avoid excess feeds that can attract rats and other land animals that can damage the enclosures. Selective harvesting is normally practiced since mud crabs do not grow or get fattened at the same time even if they belong to the same batch.
  • Conference paper

    Growth, survival, proximate and fatty acid composition of sandworm Perinereis quatrefagesi (Grube, 1878) fed variable feed types 

    JB Biñas, VR Alava & WL Campos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Sandworm Perinereis quatrefagesi has been used as feed for crustacean broodstock due to its reproductive-enhancing properties particularly protein and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Juvenile sandworms collected along the coast of Guimbal, Iloilo were reared in tanks and fed three nutritionally variable feed types: fish fecal waste, fish meal and rice bran. After 56 days, feeds affected (p<0.05) sandworm growth and crude fat contents but not (p<0.05) survival and crude protein levels. Survival rates were 86~c3 to 89~c5% while crude protein levels were 57.0 ~c 2.5 to 68.0 ~c 5.3 g 100 g-1 dry weight. High crude protein fish meal promoted better (p<0.05) growth (2.2~c0.4% day-1) than fish feces (1.2~c0.3% day-1) and rice bran (1.1~c0.3 % day-1). However, crude fat content of sandworm was higher (p<0.05) in rice bran (18.9~c1.6 g 100 g-1) than in fecal waste (13.6~c2.9 g 100 g-1) and fish meal (10.5~c3.1 g 100 g-1) treatments. Levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as 20:4 n-6, 22:6 n-3 and 20:5 n-3 did not differ significantly (p>0.05) at 0.41~c0.21 to 0.89~c0.51 g 100 g-1, 0.21~c0.24 to 0.43~c0.22 g 100 g-1 and 0.57~c0.46 to 0.88~c0.31 g 100 g-1, respectively.

    The study demonstrated that P. quatrefagesi: (1) can survive well in nutritionally variable feed types although it grows better in high protein diet; (2) crude protein levels were high regardless of feed types; and (3) crude fat content was high in high fat diet but n-3 and n-6 HUFAs were not significantly different regardless of feed types.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata fed diets supplemented with trytophan at two stocking densities 

    VR Alava, MA Lucero, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Cannibalism has been recognized as one of the major problems in crab culture. The use of dietary tryptophan (TRP) that has been reported to reduce cannibalism in crabs under laboratory conditions was verified in pond nursery culture at two stocking densities. The first phase used hatchery-produced early crab instar. After 3-4 weeks, survivors were sorted and the small size crabs were further reared in the second phase. Crabs were stocked in 12-m2 net cages installed in brackishwater pond and fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. The feeding scheme used was a combination of mussel meat (M) and formulated diet (FD) at 30:70 ratio. The original FD contained 45% crude protein (used in Experiment 1, 2 and 3) that was lowered to 40% crude protein in the new basal diet used in the succeeding experiment. The two TRP-supplemented diets had 0.5% and 0.7% TRP levels. Results showed that the TRP-supplemented feeds did not give consistent results in terms of growth and feed conversion ratio, indicating that the original basal diet (0.4% TRP and 45% crude protein) or the new basal diet (0.4% TRP and 40% crude protein) were sufficient to be used together with mussel meat as feed for crab juveniles. Higher survival rates were obtained at 50 m-2 (phase 1) and 10 m-2 (phase 2) than at 30 m-2 and 5 m-2 stocking density, respectively. All trial runs produced positive returns on investment.
  • Conference paper

    Evaluation of the bioremediation capacity of the polychaete, Marphysa mossambica (Peters, 1854) in pond sediments 

    MAE Mandario, VR Alava & NC Anasco - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Marphysa mossambica is commonly found in brackishwater ponds and is an important natural food for cultured stocks particularly mud crabs. To understand the burrowing activity of polychaete, survival and capacity to bioremediate pond sediments, tank experiments were conducted. In a completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment, small (1-month old, 28 mg) and large (3-month old, 139 mg) hatchery-bred M. mossambica were reared in two sediment types for 30 days without feeding. Aeration was supplied and water change was done every other day. Polychaete-free sediments served as control. Sediments obtained from SEAFDEC/AQD Dumangas Brackishwater Station were sun-dried, ground and passed through 1-mm sieve.

    Initial sediment A had 1.86% organic matter, 1,171 ppm available sulfur (SO42-), 194.23 ppm iron (Fe) and 7.86 pH while initial sediment B contained higher organic matter (4.1%), available sulfur (2,456.67 ppm), similar iron level (199.34 ppm) and was more acidic (4.91 pH). In sediment A, small and large polychaetes did not differ (p>0.05) with the control in reducing organic matter but both significantly reduced (p<0.05) available sulfur (77-73%) and iron (69-71%). However, only the large polychaetes increased the pH (p< 0.05, 2.67%). In sediment B, only the large polychaetes reduced (p<0.05) organic matter (27%) but both small and large polychaetes significantly reduced (p<0.05) available sulfur (64-70%) and iron (70-74%). The pH increase was similar to control (17-24%). Large polychaetes had higher survival (93%, p<0.05) than small polychaetes (60%) in sediment B but not different (p>0.05) in sediment A (97%, 87%). The study demonstrated the bioremediation capacity of M. mossambica particularly in reducing available sulfur and iron in sediments.
  • Conference paper

    Adoption of modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City, Pangasinan 

    RB Cerezo & JF Rebugio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Pangasinan’s vast fishpond and mangrove areas have not been fully tapped for mud crab (Scylla serrata) production. The main reason identified for this is the limited supply of crab seedstock. At present, there is no reliable source of seedstock in Pangasinan. The total requirement of Pangasinan for crab seedstock is estimated at 8.89 million based on the total area (ha) devoted to mud crab polyculture in the province. Mud crab growers in Pangasinan procure wild juvenile crabs from Cagayan, Bicol and Visayas but the volume is limited. Thus, an adoption of a modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City would be helpful. A model mud crab hatchery will be constructed to enable the local government unit (LGU) of Alaminos City to produce seedstock in commercial quantity to boost the production in Pangasinan and nearby provinces. The hatchery aims to produce 480,000 juvenile crabs per year to supply the nursery and grow-out ponds. Likewise, the hatchery technology will promote the mud crab hatchery and nursery technologies in the city of Pangasinan and coastal towns (Infanta, Dasol, Burgos, Agno, Bolinao, Anda, Bani, Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Binmaley, Dagupan City and San Fabian), and nearby provinces of La Union, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte and Zambales.
  • Conference paper

    Private sectors perspectives: Problems and constraints of the mud crab grow-out industry 

    HR Hocson - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab aquaculture industry in the province of Capiz received much attention after production constraints due to diseases were encountered by the prawn industry. Fishpond operators sought for an alternative high value species and realized the potential of the king crab, Scylla serrata. This species is not native to Capiz and has to be sourced from other parts of the country, particularly from the Bicol region and Samar. The techniques for grow-out culture were gradually refined as farmers learned from the experiences of others. Presently, mud crab aquaculture is being done by private sectors based more on art. However, mud crab culture requires a lot of science to make the production consistent and sustainable. The practices of farmers and the problems they have encountered are presented together with the overall industry concerns.
  • Conference paper

    Diseases affecting wild and farmed mud crab in the Philippines 

    EA Tendencia & MVC Cabilitasan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mortalities due to cannibalism and diseases have been reported as major problems in the grow-out phase of mud crab production. This study aimed to identify and describe diseases affecting farmed and wild mud crab (mangrove crab) including predisposing, risk and protective factors, and possible prevention and control measures. A total of 767 wild and farmed mud crab samples were collected. External examination showed abnormalities such as short abdominal flap, discoloration of the abdominal region, darker carapace, lesions on carapace, claws and legs, and presence of epibionts like algae and the barnacles Balanus sp. on the carapace. Internally, necrotic, black and brown gills, and discolored gonads were observed. Stalked barnacles, Octolasmis spp., were observed in the gills. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was detected in 14 samples sourced from farms and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in 2 wild samples. WSSV was implicated in mortality cases. Low temperature and presence of WSSV positive shrimp were identified as risk factors for WSSV infection or outbreak. Pathogenicity tests for some isolated bacteria suggested that these may cause mortality in mud crab under stressful conditions. To prevent mortality due to WSSV infection, it is recommended to avoid polyculture of mud crab with shrimp and/or other crustaceans.
  • Conference paper

    Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage 

    GS Pates Jr., ET Quinitio, GF Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effects of antibiotics on the survival, growth and external deformities of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 mgL-1 oxytetracycline (OTC) and 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mgL-1 furazolidone (furan) until the late megalopa in the first and second experiments. The treatments that gave the best results in the first and second experiments were conducted simultaneously in the third experiment. The surviving crab instar from each replicate were grown in nursery tanks for one month.

    Significantly higher survival and faster growth rate of Z5 were attained when 3 and 6 mgL-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1 mgL-1 furan were used. Morphological deformities observed in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. Percentage occurrence of morphological deformities was similar in all treatments. Significantly (P<0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained among Z5 in the treatments using 3 mgL-1 OTC and 0.5 mL-1 furan in the third experiment. Morphological deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage of deformities was observed in juveniles that were previously exposed to 6 mgL-1 OTC or 1.0 mgL-1 furan. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in both treatments of OTC and furan. However, growth was significantly (P<0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics.

    The study shows the apparent negative effects of antibiotics and highlights the need to eliminate or find alternatives, thereby preventing possible harm to the organisms and the environment.
  • Conference paper

    Induction of molting in hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles through temperature manipulation or autotomy 

    JJDC Huervana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effects of water temperature and autotomy of chelipeds on growth, survival and molting of mud crab, Scylla serrata, juveniles were investigated under laboratory conditions in separate experiments. Hatchery-produced crabs at the intermolt stage with 2.0-2.3 cm carapace width and 1.7-2.2 g body weight were either exposed to temperature levels of 29, 32 and 35°C and ambient temperature of 24-31°C or subjected to autotomy (voluntary removal of one or two chelipeds). The crabs were allowed to molt twice prior to termination.

    All crabs held at 35°C had 100% mortality due to incomplete molting during the first molt. The mean survival of crabs upon termination was 58, 64 and 50% for ambient temperature, 29 and 32°C, respectively. Specific growth rate (SGR) of crabs in the ambient (2.83 ± 0.12%) and 29°C (3.02 ± 0.15%) were comparable but significantly lower than (P<0.01) those at 32°C (3.85 ± 0.28%). The molt interval of crabs was significantly shorter in treatments with constant water temperature (29°C: 32 ± 0.80 days, 32°C: 28 ± 1.11 days) compared to ambient temperature (39 ± 0.93 days).

    The survival of crabs with intact chelipeds (51.17 ± 3.56%) was comparable to those with one (50.55 ± 2.36%) or two (43.41 ± 1.59%) autotomized chelipeds. Juveniles with intact (5.80 ± 0.47%) or one autotomized cheliped (5.45 ± 0.30%) had a significantly higher SGR than crabs with both chelipeds autotomized (4.20 ± 0.52%) in the first molt. On the second molt, however, high SGR was observed in crabs with two chelipeds autotomized. The molt interval was significantly shorter in the autotomized crabs (one cheliped: 28 ± 1.66 days; two chelipeds: 23 ± 0.63 days) compared to those with intact chelipeds (36 ± 1.52 days). The results suggest that optimum water temperature for rearing S. serrata juveniles ranges from 29 to 32°C. Likewise, autotomy of one cheliped can promote molting without adversely affecting the growth and survival of the juveniles.
  • Conference paper

    Initiatives on mud crab culture at the Palawan Aquaculture Corporation 

    E Tech, C Emboltorio, D Galila, C Ogsimer & K Lim - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab (Scylla spp) has long been a prime commodity in both local and global market and is regarded as one of the important high-value crustacean species produced in the Philippines. Decades ago, its culture basically relied on the availability of wild seedstock collected and grown to marketable size, or on wild lean adult crabs that were fattened for a short period.

    Developments and refinements in the hatchery and nursery techniques paved the way to bringing up culture activities to commercial levels. The Palawan Aquaculture Corporation embarked on mud crab culture in the mid 2014 where initial trials started. Collaboration with SEAFDEC/AQD was later forged bringing forth improvements in the hatchery, nursery and grow-out culture. Hatchery-reared juvenile crabs are now being sold.
  • Conference paper

    Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

    FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.

    Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.
  • Conference paper

    Philippine National Standard for Live Mud Crabs: establishing food safety and quality requirements 

    MF Matubang, TS Palomares, JP Peralta, ET Quinitio, RJ Ragaza, JV Alejo, PB Regazpi, CE Romero, HA Montoya, JG Trinidad & KKA Roscom - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) of the Department of Agriculture (DA), in collaboration with the relevant government and research agencies, academe and industry organization, is currently developing the Philippine National Standard (PNS) for live mangrove crabs (also known as mud crabs). This PNS defines the food safety and quality requirements for live mangrove crabs in order to ensure consumers&rsquo; health and make the product globally competitive. The process in the development of standards include review of the existing requirements of local and foreign markets and internationally recognized standards, creation of the Technical Working Group, initial drafting of the PNS, conduct of public consultations in major production areas, finalization of the draft for the PNS, notification to the World Trade Organization and approval of the DA Secretary.

    The PNS for live mangrove crabs specifies the scope of the standard, product description, essential composition and quality factors, hygiene, handling, labeling requirements, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives, and the requirements for product lot acceptance.
  • Conference paper

    Population structure of Scylla serrata from microsatellite and mtDNA markers 

    CCE Vince Cruz & MC Ablan-Lagman - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Determination of the population structure and connectivity of natural populations of Scylla serrata are useful tools for decision making related to conservation and management efforts of this species. They provide important considerations as recovery and sustainability of the industry relies on the availability of hardy recruits that can replenish harvested resources from the system. In the case of marine domesticated species, admixture is expected due to commodity trade and exchanges.

    Current population structure of five wild populations of S. serrata from Pangasinan, Bataan, Cagayan, Quezon, and Panay was determined using five microsatellite markers, cross-amplified from Scylla paramamosain in a total of 259 samples. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences of 25 representative individuals from the same locations were used to provide a comparison with original evolutionary patterns. Quality check of microsatellite data revealed no null alleles in the data set, with all loci and populations exhibiting Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Pairwise FST analysis reveals FST values between 0.001-0.08432 with 9 out of the 16 possible comparisons considered significant. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the 16S rDNA sequences, supported by bootstrap values. Both sets of data suggest 2 distinct groupings: the east coast populations of Cagayan and Quezon, the west coast populations of Pangasinan and Bataan, with admixture observed in the group from Panay. Additional data from 5 microsatellite markers specifically developed for S. serrata and the D-loop region will be added to the analysis.

    The results from both mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, revealing an East-West separation of S. serrata populations, suggest that current and evolutionary population patterns are matching. Aquaculture practices appear to have not yet significantly affected the population structure of this domesticated species, as initially speculated.
  • Conference paper

    Genetic diversity and stock delineation of Philippine populations of the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea 

    FJM Paran & RJ Ravago-Gotanco - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is regarded as an important fishery resource due to high demand and high market value. However, mud crab populations are threatened by over exploitation and habitat degradation, and would benefit from resource management interventions. The study examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity of orange mud crab populations across the Philippines, with the aim of identifying putative management units. A total of 387 Scylla olivacea were collected from ten localities across the Philippine archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-CR) DNA sequences revealed cryptic diversity among Scylla olivacea specimens with four mitochondrial lineages recovered. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that Philippine populations do not constitute a single genetic stock (0ST=0.00262; P=0.00015). Thirteen microsatellite loci were also utilized as additional markers to infer population structure and estimate genetic variation. Overall, S. olivacea populations exhibit high haplotype diversity (mean h=0.9803) and nucleotide diversity (mean ~p3.46%), which may be indicative of a large, stable population within Philippine archipelagic waters. This study provides information on genetic diversity and population structure of S. olivacea, which will be useful towards developing management and conservation strategies for sustainable development of natural S. olivacea populations in the Philippines.
  • Conference paper

    Identification of mud crab species in coastal areas of Pangasinan 

    RB Cerezo & MC Tapia - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The study was conducted to identify the mud crab species (Scylla spp.) that thrive in 12 coastal municipalities and 2 cities in Pangasinan. Ten mud crab samples were taken from each of the sampling site and classified based on Keenan et al. (1998). Likewise, the abundance and differences in size and weight of the mud crab samples were determined. The study showed that there are only three mud crab species, Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea, found in the coastal areas of Pangasinan. S. serrata was the most abundant species (54.28%), followed by S. tranquebarica (24.28%) and S. olivacea (22.14%). Crabs weighing more than 300 g (~.12 cm carapace width or CW) were obtained from the municipalities of Anda, Bolinao, Dasol, Burgos, Bani, Agno, Alaminos and Infanta. These municipalities are geographically situated in coastal areas where S. serrata are found. Crabs weighing below 300 g (~.12 cm CW) were collected from the municipalities of Sual, Labrador, San Fabian, Lingayen, Dagupan and Binmaley. These towns have mangrove areas and low saline waters where S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea thrive.
  • Conference paper

    Effect of feed binder on water stability and digestibility of formulated feed for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

    MR Catacutan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The binding capacity of six natural and eight synthetic feed binders were tested in a basal diet formulated for the mud crab. Incorporation levels of natural binders ranged from 1 to 25% while those of synthetic binders ranged from 0.1 to 5% and these were tested for pellet stability in seawater by a) 10-min immersion, and b) at different time intervals. Pellets with synthetic binders were more water-stable than pellets with natural binders. Three synthetic binders and natural binders (glutinous rice starch and carrageenan + CMC) showed best results. The Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of crude protein (ADCCP) and crude fat (ADCCFt) of the basal diet were determined when selected feed binders were included in the formulation. These were determined by using an inert indicator, chromic oxide. Results showed that the ADCCP and ADCCFt of the basal diet were not similar when different binders were used, and these differences ranged from 3 to 7%. Carrageenan combined with a synthetic binder improved ADCCP and CDCCFt values.

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